Thursday, May 21, 2020
In both the story Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ and the popular film Ã¢â¬Å"The ShiningÃ¢â¬ there is a strong emphasis on isolation and the later onset of madness. How does isolation lead to madness and how does it affect the characters in these stories over time? Also, are both stories comparable with how the onset of madness occurs or do the characters end up crazy from completely different events. In the story Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ Jane is diagnosed with hysteria, which at the time led to those deemed with this Ã¢â¬Å"complicationÃ¢â¬ to undergo the bedrest prescription. Which often did nothing for the person but made them angry over time. While in Ã¢â¬Å"The ShiningÃ¢â¬ the character Jack goes mad from the haunted hotel he works at, and previously had a bad drinkingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(phycology today) They have their contrasts, however a similarity they both illnesses have is that they often have fits of rage and interpersonal violence as a symptom. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ , Jane fits the role of a sociopath due to her disjointed thoughts and paranoia which came as a side effect from her isolation during bedrest. While Jack is not as clear cut, he later acts as a sociopath when he slips back into his bad habits of drinking, and being abusive while also being manipulated by the hotelÃ¢â¬â¢s ghosts. Jack sometimes thinks about his actions before he makes them, which puts him in line with being psychopath due to pre-meditation. It is apparent that they both have some form of mental illness that they develop over their respective stories, due to them being completely sane during the introductions of both. What led to JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s mental instability was being placed on bedrest due to her being diagnosed with hysteria, which at the time was given to women under immense stress. This Ã¢â¬Å"cureÃ¢â¬ did not actually cure anything. It in fact made these women often go crazy from the isolation they had to end ure. Even the author herself was diagnosed with hysteria and put on the bedrest cure. Which is one reason why she wanted to add this aspect into the game. This cure was extremely prominent during the period the story takes placeShow MoreRelatedAutobilography of Zlatan Ibrahimovic116934 Words Ã |Ã 468 Pageshappen since back in school when I saw chicks in Ralph Lauren shirts for the first time and almost shit my pants when I was asking them out. But still, I started the season great. I scored goal after goal after goal. We won the UEFA Super Cup. I was shining. I dominated. But I was somebody else. Something had happened, nothing serious, not yet. I had been silenced, and that s dangerous, believe me. I have to be mad to play well. I have to shout and make scenes. Now I kept all that within me. MaybeRead MoreEssay on Fall of Asclepius95354 Words Ã |Ã 382 PagesA monster in disguise of a princess. Yeah... she said in a child-like tone. Duncan let her back down on the ground. Carmine was very short compared to Duncan. He stood a clear two feet over her. So are we still on for the movie this Friday? Of course. Which movie do you want to see again? Is The Dark Legacy, okay? Sounds good. Great! She looked over her shoulder to her friends. I have to go now, but Ill see you in third period. Ill be counting the hours, he saidRead MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words Ã |Ã 1186 Pagesand Part II The Harry Potter film franchise is the second highest grossing film franchise of all time, with the five films released to date only slightly behind the 22 James Bond films. The adaption of the final novel in the series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, will be split into two films, with Part I scheduled to be released in 2010 and Part II in 2011. The Harry Potter franchise is seen by movie insiders as critical to staving off the general decline in movie attendance due to economic
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Utopia is a thing every modern civilization strives for. In Greek, the word topos means place, but the prefix ou- or eu-, rendered in modern English as u has a double meaning: ou- means no while eu- means good. In other words, the literal translation of utopia can be either good place or Ã¢â¬Å"no place.Ã¢â¬ When asked the definition of Ã¢â¬Å"utopiaÃ¢â¬ one can assume the recurring answer would correspond to Nathaniel HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s opening statement in The Scarlet Letter saying that utopia is Ã¢â¬Å"a colonyÃ¢â¬ ¦of human virtue and happinessÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Hawthorne 1). However as human beings, with independent wills and thoughts, the suggestion that a whole community can think and be as one to create that perfection without some kind of restriction is implausible. I assert that social, physical, and mental conditioning must be utilized to create the single-mindedness of a majority to make this society conceivable. In 1516, the first recorded utopian society was found in Thomas MoreÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Utopia. What was first and foremost a biting, satirical take on his own society, held some sincerity into what More pictured as a flawless civilization. To the inhabitants of this country named Utopia, Ã¢â¬Å"their chief concern is what to think of human happinessÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"virtue as living according to nature; and GodÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (More 65, 66). They are a people who find serenity in holding on to no material possessions and partaking in everything together, contributing to the sense of community. The doors to all the houses are left
Choosing a research method Webb, R. , Westergaard, H. , Trobe, K. We will write a custom essay sample on Notes on Sociology or any similar topic only for you Order Now , Steel, L. , (2008) AS Level Sociology, Brentwood: Napier Press p. 162 Sociologists use a range of different research methods and sources of data to collect information and test their theories. In this Topic, we shall identify the main methods and sources used in Sociology. We shall also look at the different types of data that these methods produce. We shall also examine the factors that influence sociologistsÃ¢â¬â¢ choice of what topic they research, and at some of the main practical, theoretical and ethical (moral) factors that affect their choice of which methods to employ. Types of data P. 163 Sociologists use a wide variety of different methods and sources to obtain data (information or evidence) about society. To make sense of this variety, we can classify them into: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Primary and secondary sources of data. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Quantitative and qualitative data. Primary and secondary sources of data Primary data is information collected by sociologists themselves for their own purposes. These purposes may be to obtain a first Ã¢â¬â hand Ã¢â¬ËpictureÃ¢â¬â¢ of a group or society, or to test a hypothesis (an untested theory). Methods for gathering primary data include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Social surveys: these involve asking people questions in a written questionnaire or an interview. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Participant observation: the sociologist joins in with the activities of the group he or she is studying. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Experiments: sociologists rarely use laboratory experiments, but they sometimes use field experiments and the comparative method. A big advantage of using primary data is that sociologists may be able to gather precisely the information they need to test their hypotheses. However, doing so can often be costly and time consuming. Secondary data is information that has been collected by someone else for their own purposes, but which the sociologist can then use. Sources of secondary data include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Official statistics produced by government on a wide range of issues, such as crime, divorce, health and unemployment, as well as other statistics produced by charities, businesses, churches and other organisations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Documents such as letters, diaries, photographs, official (government) reports, novels, newspapers and television broadcasts. Using secondary data can be a quick and cheap way of doing research, since someone else has already produced the information. However, those who produce it may not be interested in the same questions as sociologists, and so secondary sources may not provide exactly the information that sociologists need. Quantitative and qualitative data Quantitative data refers to information in a numerical form. Examples of quantitative data include official statistics on how many girls passed five or more GCSEs or on the percentage of marriages ending in divorce. Similarly, information collected by opinion polls and market research surveys often comes in the form of quantitative data Ã¢â¬â for example, on the proportion of the electorate intending to vote for a particular party or how many people take holidays abroad. Qualitative data, by contrast gives a Ã¢â¬ËfeelÃ¢â¬â¢ for what something is like Ã¢â¬â for example, what it feels like to get good GCSE results, or for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage to end in divorce. Evidence gathered by using participant observation aims to give us a sense of what it feels like to be in that personÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëshoes. These methods can provide rich descriptions of these peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings and experiences. Factors influencing choice of method P. 164 Given the wide range of methods available, how do we select the right one for our research? Different methods and sources of data have different strengths and limitations and we need to be able to evaluate these when selecting which to use. We can look at these strengths and limitations in terms of a number of practical, ethical (moral) and theoretical issues. Practical issues Different methods present different practical problems. These include: Time and money Different methods require different amounts of time and money and this may influence the sociologistsÃ¢â¬â¢ choice. For example, large Ã¢â¬â scale surveys may employ dozens of interviewers and data Ã¢â¬â inputting staff and cost a great deal of money. By contrast, a small Ã¢â¬â scale project involving a lone researcher using participant observation may be cheaper to carry out, but it can take several years to complete. The researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s access to resources can be a major factor in determining which methods they employ. A well Ã¢â¬â known professor will probably have access to more research funds than a young student, for example. Requirements of funding bodies Research institutes, businesses and other organisations that provide the funding for research may require the results to be in a particular form. For example, a government department funding research into educational achievement may have targets for pass rates and so require quantitative data to see whether these targets are being achieved. This means the sociologist will have to use a method capable of producing such data, such as questionnaires or structured interviews. Personal skills and characteristics Each sociologist possesses different personal skills, and this may affect their ability to use different methods. For example, participant observation usually requires the ability to mix easily with others as well as good powers of observation and recall, while in Ã¢â¬â depth interviews call for an ability to establish a rapport (relationship of empathy and trust) with the interviewee. Not all sociologists have these qualities and so some may have difficulty using these methods. Subject matter It may be much harder to study a particular group or subject by one method than by another. For example, it might prove difficult for a male sociologist to study an all Ã¢â¬â female group by means of participant observation, while written questionnaires may be useless for studying those who cannot read. Research opportunity Sometimes the opportunity to carry out research occurs unexpectedly and this means that it may not be possible to use unstructured methods such as questionnaires, which take longer to prepare. For example, a Glasgow gang leader offered Ã¢â¬ËJames PatrickÃ¢â¬â¢ (1973) the chance Ã¢â¬Ëout of the blueÃ¢â¬â¢ to spend time with his gang. With little time to prepare, Ã¢â¬ËPatrickÃ¢â¬â¢ had no option but to use participant observation. In other circumstances, the researcher may have been able to set up the research opportunity carefully beforehand and have plenty of time to select their methods. P. 165Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ethical issues Ethics refers to moral issues of right and wrong. Methods that sociologists use to study people may raise a range of ethical questions. The British Sociological Association sets out guidelines for the conduct of research, including the following principles: Informed consent Research participants (the people being studied) should be offered the right to refuse. The researcher should also tell them about all relevant aspects of the research so that they can make a fully informed decision. Consent should be obtained before research begins, and if the study is lengthy, again at intervals throughout the process. Confidentiality and privacy Researchers should keep the identity of research participants secret in order to help to prevent possible negative effects on them. Researchers should also respect the privacy of research participants. Personal information concerning research participants should be kept confidential. Effects on research participants Researchers need to be aware of the possible effects of their work on those they study. These could include police intervention, harm to employment prospects, social exclusion and psychological damage. Wherever possible, researchers should try to anticipate and prevent such harmful effects. Vulnerable groups Special care should be taken where research participants are particularly vulnerable because of their age, disability, or physical or mental health. For example, when studying children in schools, researchers should have regard for issues of child protection. They should obtain the consent of both the child and the parent, and they should provide information in language that the child can understand. Covert research Covert research is when the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s identity and research purpose are hidden from the people being studied. This can create serious ethical problems, such as deceiving or lying to people in order to win their trust or obtain information. Clearly, it is impossible to gain informed consent while at the same time keeping the research or its purpose secret. However, some sociologists argue that the use of covert methods may be justified in certain circumstances. These may include gaining access to areas of social life closed to investigation by secretive, deviant or powerful groups. Theoretical issues This refers to questions about what we think society is like and whether we can obtain an accurate, truthful picture of it. Our views on these issues will affect the kinds of methods we favour using. Validity A valid method is one that produces a true or genuine picture of what something is really like. It allows the researcher to get closer to the truth. Many sociologists argue that qualitative methods such as participant observation give us a more valid or truthful account of what it is like to be a member of a group than quantitative methods such as questionnaires can. This is because participant observation can give us a deeper insight through first hand experience. Reliability Another word for reliability is replicability. A replica is an exact copy of something, so a reliable method is one which, when repeated by another researcher, gives the same results. For example, in Physics or Chemistry, different researchers can repeat the same experiment and obtain the same results every time. In Sociology, quantitative methods such as written questionnaires tend to produce more reliable results than qualitative methods such as unstructured interviews. p. 166 Representativeness Representativeness refers to whether or not the people we study are a typical cross Ã¢â¬â section of the group we are interested in. Imagine, for example, that we want to know about the effects of divorce on children. It would take a great deal of time and money to study every child of divorced parents, and we might only be able to afford to study a sample of, say, 100 such children. However, if we ensure that our sample is representative or typical of the wider population, we can then use our findings to make generalisations about all children of divorced parents, without actually having to study all of them. Large Ã¢â¬â scale quantitative surveys that use sophisticated sampling techniques to select their sample are more likely to produce representative data. Methodological perspective SociologistsÃ¢â¬â¢ choice of method is also influenced by their methodological perspective Ã¢â¬â their view of what society is like and how we should study it. There are two contrasting perspectives on the choice of methods: positivism and interpretivism. Positivists Ã¢â¬â prefer quantitative data, seek to discover patterns of behaviour, see Sociology as a science. Interpretivists Ã¢â¬â prefer qualitative data, seek to understand social actorsÃ¢â¬â¢ meanings, reject the view that Sociology is a science. Why do positivists and Interpretivists prefer different types of data? Positivists and Interpretivists collect and use different types of data: positivists prefer quantitative data, while Interpretivists prefer qualitative. This is because they make different assumptions about the nature of society and how we should study it. Positivists: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Assume that society has an objective factual reality Ã¢â¬â it exists Ã¢â¬Ëout thereÃ¢â¬â¢, just like the physical world. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Society exerts an influence over its members, systematically shaping their behaviour patterns. Positivist research uses quantitative data to uncover and measure these patterns of behaviour. Ã¢â¬ ¢ By analysing quantitative data, positivists seek to discover the objective scientific laws of cause and effect that determine behaviour. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Positivists thus prefer questionnaires, structured interviews, experiments and official statistics. These produce data that is both reliable and representative. Interpret ivists: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reject the idea of an objective social reality Ã¢â¬â we construct reality through the meanings we give to situations, not the product of external forces. Our actions are based on the meanings we give to situations, not the product of external forces. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Interpretivist research uses qualitative data to uncover and describe the social actorÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëuniverse of meaningÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ ¢ By interpreting qualitative data, Interpretivists seek to gain a subjective understanding of actorsÃ¢â¬â¢ meanings and Ã¢â¬Ëlife worldsÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Interpretivists thus prefer participant observation, unstructured interviews, and personal documents. These produce data that is valid. Functionalists and Marxists often take a positivist approach. They see society as a large Ã¢â¬â scale (macro Ã¢â¬â level) structure that shapes our behaviour. By contrast, interactionists favour an interpretivist approach. They take a micro Ã¢â¬â level view of society, focusing on small Ã¢â¬â scale, face Ã¢â¬â to face interactions. The sociologistÃ¢â¬â¢s theoretical perspective is usually the most important factor when choosing which method to use. Whenever possible, they will want to obtain the type of data Ã¢â¬â quantitative or qualitative Ã¢â¬â that their perspective views as most appropriate. However, practical and ethical factors usually limit the choice of method. Just because a sociologist prefers a particular kind of data, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that they can simply go ahead and gather it. Time, resources, access, consent, privacy and so on are all constraints on their choice. Finally, even sheer chance may determine the method used. For example, David Tuckett (2001) describes how one postgraduate Sociology student found himself taken ill with tuberculosis and confined to a hospital ward, so he used this as an opportunity to conduct a participant observation study. Choice of topic p. 167. Before choosing which method to use, sociologists need to decide what topic they wish to study. Several factors influence their choice: Theoretical perspective The sociologistÃ¢â¬â¢s theoretical perspective is a major influence upon their choice of research topic. For example, a New Right researcher may study the effects of welfare benefits on the growth of lone Ã¢â¬â parent families, since the idea of welfare dependency is central to their standpoint. By contrast, a feminist researcher is more likely to choose to study domestic violence, as opposition to gender oppression lies at the heart of Feminist theory. SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s values Sociologists themselves are part of the society they study and thus are influenced by its values. As these values change, so does the focus of research. The rise of Feminism in the 1960s and 1970s led to a focus on gender inequality and the environmentalist concerns of the 21st century have generated interest in Ã¢â¬Ëgreen crimesÃ¢â¬â¢ such as serious pollution or the unlawful transport of nuclear material. Funding bodies Most research requires funding from an external body. These bodies include government agencies, charitable organisations and businesses. As the funding body is paying for the research, it will determine the topic to be investigated. For example, one of the major social concerns of New Labour governments after 1997 was the Ã¢â¬Ësocial exclusionÃ¢â¬â¢ of some disadvantaged groups. As a result, government departments were keen to fund research projects to investigate the causes and effects of social exclusion. Practical factors Practical factors, such as the inaccessibility of certain situations to the researcher, may also restrict what topic they are able to study. For example, although sociologists may wish to study the ways in which global corporations make their decisions, this may not be possible because these are made in secrecy. Summary Sociologists test their theories using quantitative or qualitative data. Sociologists obtain primary data themselves, using methods including questionnaires, interviews and observation. Secondary data are produced by others but used by sociologists. In choosing a method, sociologists take several issues into account: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Practical issues include time and funding. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ethical issues include whether the researcher deceives the subjects. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Theoretical issues include validity (does the method give a truthful picture? ), reliability (can it be replicated? ) and representativeness (does it study a typical cross Ã¢â¬â section? ). Perspective also affects choice of method. Positivists prefer quantitative data; interpretivists favour qualitative data. Choice of topic is also affected by societyÃ¢â¬â¢s values and funding bodies. How to cite Notes on Sociology, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Functional style as having social relevance, functionally determined, displaying inner coherence combination of ways of usage, choice and combination of means of speech communication In the domain off certain national language, correlated with other ways of expression of the same type, which attain other alms and fulfill other functions In the social communicative experience of the Functional style as the arrangement of language means in speech ( in the text), built up as the result of the working principles of language means choice and combination in a certain sphere of immunization in accordance with the tasks and conditions of communication M. N. Oozing.The extra-linguistic basis of a functional style, I. E. The tasks and aims of communication in a certain social sphere, determined by the purpose of the correlated form of public thinking, a type of mentality, current in the sphere, typical patterns of contents. Systematic character of a functional style in speech ( functional stylistic correlation of the units on the basis of common communicative purport). We will write a custom essay sample on Major Functional Styles of English or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Functional Styles as speech systems. Functional styles as styles of language and speech. The notion of register ( similar to that of the notion of style) , as series of situational factors, which determine the use of specific language means General classification of functional styles.Linguistic and extra-linguistic factors in the classification of functional styles. The role of extra-linguistic factors in style studies ( the Prague Linguistic Circle). Style forming factors of a functional style. Universal, normative-stylistic character of the style-forming factor of a functional style (motiveless, evaluation, rationality, imagery, logic, exactness) and their difference in accordance with the purport of communication. Functional analysis of the style- forming factors of a functional style V. Schneider. . Problems of the Functional Styles Classification. Reasons for recognizing the style of fiction the belles-letters style : pros and cons.Cons: the language affliction Is multi-stylistic, not closed, It integrates other functional styles of the language, has no specific language markers; the aesthetic function the language affliction which Is expressed in special use of language means with the division of styles into artistic and non;artistic or the treatment of the belles-letters style outside the system of functional styles; in Russian it is not included in the domain of literary language due to a specific character of the literary language and the formation of the latter a under the influence of the language of fiction ( V. D. Bondage, L. Y. Massive, N. A. Mesmerism, A. K. Pangolin, D. N. Schemers. Pros: the language of fiction cannot be beyond the existing system of functional styles as in spite of its multi-stylistic properties it uses only part of the inventory of the elements and units of the other styles but doesnt express its speech systemic character and their use In the aesthetic function Is very pacific; It has the unity of a stylistic speech system, In spite of the authors individuality ]V. V. Flavored, I. V. Arnold, R. A. Budding,l. R. Gapless, B. N. Glove, A. K. Dolan E. G. Riles. So If functional styles should be treated as norms of speech composition there are no objections to treating the belles-letter style as one of the different stylistic meanings.If we suppose that a functional style is identified on the basis of the sphere of communication and its main function, its complexity and heterogeneity shouldnt present an obstacle A. K. Doodling. Reasons for singling out he newspaper style in the system of functional styles Newspaper style as a subsystem of publicist style M. N. Oozing. Newspaper and publicist sub-styles of the so-called informational style Functional style as a historical category. The style of poetry in the English language in the epoch of classicism (17th -18th centuries) with special norms of poetic language the choice of vocabulary, morphological forms and syntactic construction.The priority of abstract, bookish, high-flown words ( arduous, glories abundance of stylistic devices, archaic grammatical forms (thee, thy, doth, etc. , perfect regularity of rhyming, rhythmic, meter, syntactic, compositional and other formal patterns dependence on the canon. Aesthetics, priority of exquisite taste, sensible and noble ideals proclaimed in the poem Poetic Art by Niccole Bubal. The spread of French classical traditions in Great Britain. The Belles-letters Style. Aesthetic function as the main function of the belles-letters style. Aesthetics as one the most important elements of human culture. Aesthetic activity as creative activity in accordance with the laws of beauty.Social determination of aesthetic vision of the world (social interpretation of the of esthetics). The objective grounds for of aesthetics discovered in the existence of the world of reality ( symmetry, rhythm, harmony, integrity, regularity, expediency, optimization). Artistic creation as a special form of cognition and exploration of reality: synthetics of cognitive, evaluative, communicative, practical activities. Art as the objective basis of artistic activity. Works of art as integration of creative activity and perception. Art as self-reflection and code of culture. Other functions: educational, informational, hedonistic (entertaining), evaluative.Stylistic peculiarities f the belles-letters style: imagery, unity and indivisibility of artistic form and contents, completeness and integrity (hierarchy and systematic interaction of different levels of the belles-letters text artistic imagery produced by speech concreteness, stylistic integrity and multi-stylistic variation, (introduction of elements of other styles, e. G. Of the colloquial style in the aesthetic function into the belles- letters style), emotionality and evaluation, emphasis, and uniqueness. Sub-styles of the belles-letters style: poetry, prose, drama. Poetic genres: ballad, ode, pastoral, Monet, elegy, limerick, epigram, etc. Genres in prose: a story, a short story, a novel, etc.Genres in drama: comedy, tragedy, drama, dramatic monologue, dramatic dialogue. Stylistic difference of texts belonging to various sub-styles and genres, literary trends, artistic methods, (romanticism, realism, sentimentalism, etc. ), displaying different types of presentation ( narration, description), points of view of the speaker, ( I-speaking, fairy-tale speaking), topics, ideas, compositional arrangements, systems of imagery, the authors desolates, presence or absence of stabilization. Desolates. Language means of the belles-letters style: ; phonetic means sound reiteration, onomatopoeia (sound imitation), alliteration, euphony, consonance, dissonance.Rhyme, rhythm and meter in poetry, the notion of rhythm in ; vocabulary- priority of concrete words as artistic speech concentration , prose; unlimited choice of vocabulary (including non-literary means, Jargon and slang developed polymers, no limits in the use of words, which belong to different functional stylistic groups of vocabulary, stylistic resources of combinatory semantics of language units, normative and irregular combinatory patterns, creative and other functions of phraseology, decomposition of phraseology, rich, genuine imagery, the use of figures of speech or lexical stylistic devices, as a unique textual system; ; grammatical means of the language: in morphology a variety and wealth of stylistic effects of morphological forms and categories for expressing artistic speech concentration (decides, specific use o f aspect and temporal meanings of the verb, Verbal speech and plot development ( increase in the role and currency of the verb, special use of morphological categories of number, case, egress of comparison for emphatic and emotive purposes; in syntax a variety and wealth of syntactical constructions, colloquial speech stabilization.Means of expressive syntax: inversion, parallelism, antithesis, percolation, gradation, detachment, different models of author and character speech presentation, different models of homogeneous secondary parts of the sentence arrangement with the priority of double and triple patterns; ; compositional textual devices ( three-part compositional canon introduction, the main part and the ending with a more complex model of prologue and epilogue), deviations from the canon and their titlists importance, the plot development the exposition, gradation, the climax and the outcome ( the denouement), compositional peculiarities of a poetic text- rigidly fixed dim ensions of textual arrangement ( the fixed number of feet, lines, regular accentual models of the foot and line arrangement, the length and arrangement of a stanza, peculiar models of stanza and text arrangement, patterned rhyme, meter and syntax constructions), extensive use of foregrounding (coupling, antithesis, convergence, the effect of deceived expectancys effect of replenished expectancy, realism, irony, hyperbole as compositional devices; ; the system of stylistic devices: systemic use of imagery textual, developed and simple non-developed metaphors, metonymys, epithets, similes, hyperbole, litotes, puns, oxymorons, zeugmas, different in form contact and distant repetitions (ordinary, anaphora, peripheral, framing, Indianapolis, chain, refrain) Intensification of the total aesthetic impact of the language means of the text. Scientific Style. The main function of the scientific style: rational cognition and linguistic presentation of the dynamics of thinking. Other communica tive tasks. Inner differentiation and the formation of the sub-styles and genres of the scientific style used in different fields of science, characterized by different manners of scientific presentation. Sub-styles and genres: scientific style proper thesis, abstract of thesis, monograph, article, report, abstract off report Popular scientific an article, annotations, review, etc. ). Sub-languages of scientific styles: law, political, medical, economic, technical, computer, linguistic, etc. Types of presentation: description and argumentation ( deduction, induction). Different degree of polemics. Popularization of the scientific text. The addressee factor. Peculiarities of scientific communication: planned, prepared delayed in time communication (except for lectures and reports). Style-forming features: great role of tradition in the use of language means, objective and non-categorical presentation, specific means of expression, a certain extent of emphasis, restrictions imagery.Language means of the scientific style: ; lexical means highly specialized scientific terminology, terminological groups, revealing the conceptual systems of the scientific style, the peculiarities of the use of terms in scientific speech, the use of nouns and verbs in abstract meanings, special reference words, scientific phraseology clicks, stereotyped and hackneyed word combinations and idioms, priority of neutral vocabulary, limitations in the use of emotional- evaluative and expressive vocabulary and phraseology, absence of non-literary vocabulary and phraseology ( slang words, vulgarisms, obscene words) , peculiarities in word- building (standard suffixes and prefixes, mainly of Greek and Latin origin tell-, morph, Phil- -ism, etc. , peculiarities in the scarce use of imagery (usually trite and hackneyed, the priority of the functions of intensification and decoration, non- hysteretic, narrow contextual character, absence of rich associations, schematic and generalized character); ; grammatical means: nominal character ( the predominance of nouns over verbs) in the use of parts of speech, the use of prepositional of-phrases to substitute the genitive case, transposition of the classes of nouns, wide use of the Passive Voice, Indefinite Tenses, specialization of pronouns in demonstrative and intensification functions, numerous conjunctions revealing the logical order of the text as well as double conjunctions ( not merely. .. But also, whether or both And, as.. . ), adverbs of logical connection ; syntactical means: priority of full, logically correct, regular syntactical models, the syntax of simple sentence in the scientific speech extensive use of extended two- member sentence, priority in the use of compound sentences, extensive use of secondary predicative constructions ( Complex Object, Participial and Gerundial Constructions), wide use of conjunctions and denominative prepositions, concise expression of syntactical connection in word combinations, sentences, groups of sentences, absolute priority of declarative sentences in the use of communicative types of sentences; composition of scientific text as an explication of the stages of cognition and productive thinking, the usual model is presented by the following scheme- a problem situation, idea, hypothesis, proof, conclusion, compositional speech forms of discussion, argumentation and description, conclusion, types of narration, wide-spread co-referential repetition as a specific m ethod of text development.Functional restrictions: strong objections to the use of non-literary vocabulary, scarce use of emotional and intensification units of vocabulary and phraseology, and stylistic devices (metaphors, metonymys, etc. , absence of the second person form and corresponding personal pronouns, scarce use of l- speaking, limited use of incomplete and non-declarative, and one-member sentences. Publicist Style (Journalese). The major functions of the publicist style: social influence and public opinion manipulation; informative function. Additional functions: propaganda, popularization, education, organization, analysis and criticism, hedonism (entertainment). Stylistic features of the publicist style: interchange of standard and expressiveness, explicit evaluation, affective, impressive harasser, stylistic effects of novelty, advertising, mass, group social orientation, pictographs (documentary precision, abundance of statistics, topics and proper names, factual data), neutral or formal manner of presentation, generalization, the styles. Publicist style as a sphere of intersection with the style of fiction / essay, sketch, lampoon, satirical article/ and scientific style commentary, review. Elements of conversational and official styles. Subtitles and genres: publicist style proper / lampoons, articles, essays, sketches, travelogues, memoirs, political propaganda / lagans, leaflets, proclamations, Journalese l, newspapers style editorial (leader) article, brief news, or news columns, report, interview, reportage /, oratory / speeches, parliamentary debates, TV discussions. .. TV and radio Journalese, publicist cinematography (documentary, news-reel, etc. ).New publicist genres: talk-show, reality-show, role-play show, game-show, debates, TV poll, TV commentary, new types of information programs. Inner differentiation of the publicist style and correlation of functional relevance of its different variations and genres. Newspaper Style. Problems of classification. Newspaper genres: editorial (leading article), newsreel, brief news report, reportage, interview, essay, title, topical satire, advertisement. Graphic Means of the newspaper style: wide use of graphic means change of prints, word-arts, italics, various graphic symbols (asterisks, etc. ) used for the sake of text limitation as well as elements of compositional arrangement such as columns, titles, subtitles, parts and paragraphs.Language Means of publicist style: vocabulary: priority of neutral and bookish vocabulary, wide use of language means to actuality Carrolton (proper and geographical names, abundance of statistics, phonemic and proper names, facts and data), means of evaluation, neologisms, social political terminology, a great number of loan-words and international words, use words and word-combinations of other styles ( especially, conversational), against the general background of the bookish style vocabulary, including terminology as well as me ans of imagery to increase expressiveness / trite metaphors, metonymys, personification, metaphorical paraphrases, metaphorical use of terminology, newspaper terms: newspaper vocabulary and cliches Roundels and bookish), decomposition of phraseologies units. Word-building: loan suffixes and prefixes as well as combination of words; ; grammatical means: in morphology the use of the singular number of nouns in their collective meaning, plural number for the definition of generalization, wide use of the superlative degree of adjectives in order to reveal expressiveness as well as the use of adjectives-collaborative, substantiation and evaluation of the use of numerals, adjectives and participles. Average sentence length (9-11 words) and average degree of complexity in the sentence structure. Wide use of declarative sentences.The use of questions, exclamatory sentences for the sake of expressiveness. Means of expressive syntax: inversions, parallelism, antithesis, percolation, gradation, isolation, different types of the authors words presentation and conversational constructions, different patterns in the use of homogeneous parts of the sentence double, three-element and multi- element; ; compositional and textual means: cannonaded three-part structure of publicist texts, the principle of pyramid and its effects in the composition of modern newspaper text, the use of compositional ( foregrounding) devices. Official Style. / The Style of Official Documents l. Regulative function as the main one, I. E. He establishment of norms and rules in the sphere of public relations (e. G. The relations of individuals, group individual relations, the relations of social groups and acts, codes, instructions, orders /, the style official documents / applications, references, protocols, questionnaires, profiles, autobiographies, agreements, contracts.. . /, the style of diplomatic documents / agreements, pacts, communiques, note, memoranda, declarations /. Considerable inner differentiation, I. E. Inconsiderable genre-stylistic distinctions depending on the functional purpose of the text, themes, sphere of use, character of the institution issuing a publication.Stylistic features: standard, imperative and prescriptive nature, ascertaining as leading method of presentation, precision which does not admit misinterpretation, non- personal character. Specific features of the official style characteristic of all its varieties and genres: temple ( pattern) text composition, speech standard and stereotyped ways of expression and arrangement of the language means (cliches, standard vocabulary). Use of the language means belonging to the style of official documents as negative development in speech culture, especially within the norms of publicist style. Language means of the style of official documents: ; graphic means: wide use of graphic means change of the print, italics, the use of graphic delimitation means various graphic symbols (asterisks, lines, patterns, etc. Which clearl y demonstrate text limitation ( columns, division into parts, sections, elements, paragraphs), means of graphic design which reveal the representational form of the temple; ; lexical means: bureaucratic cliches ( words or word- ambitions), the use of special terminology to express precision, repetitions, the use of constructions with archaic elements, wide spread of vocabulary units, expressing obligation, absence of subjective emotional appraisal; ; grammatical means: nominal character / predominance of nouns, a great number of nominal prepositions and conjunctions, wide use of the genitive case, different forms of expressing imperative / verbs with the meaning of obligation, verbs of instruction, prescription, future tense forms, the imperative mood, infinitive and infinitive constructions, absence of the first and second person presentation and correlated rounds, the use of collective nouns for the expression of impersonality, different patterns of statement and ascertaining, spe cific use of aspect and tense forms ( future in conditional sentences, wide use of conditional sentences in connection with the necessity of detailed exposition and proviso, rare use of complex sentences, especially with subordinate sentences of cause because of the absence of the necessity to explicate logical operations of analysis and reasoning; ; compositional devices: the patterned structure of texts of all the genres and subtitles, declarative, ascertaining nature, neglect of narration and discussion. Colloquial (Conversational) Style. The main function is communication, realization of practical activity of a person. It is used in everyday life. Extra-linguistic features: informality, spontaneous character of speech, interpersonal contact and direct involvement in the process of communication, attraction of paralinguistic means of communication (gestures, expression of the face, movements).Stylistic features: familiarity, ellipsis, concrete character of speech, interruption and logical inconsistency of the speech, motiveless, efficacy. Secondary stylistic features: idiomatic and pattern character, personal type of speech presentation. Oral and written (epistolary) varieties. Two forms of speech: dialogue (simple dialogue and polygene) and monologue. Inner mood, aims, relations between the speakers, situation and theme of the conversation. Subtitles and genres: literary conversational style / talks, conversations, interviews l, familiar-conversational style / communication between family members, friends, intimate communication, childrens talk l, low colloquial / quarrels, abuse, scandal, squabble, insult l.Language peculiarities: high activity of non-bookish means of the engage ( with stylistic conversational and familiarity coloring, the use of non- bookish low colloquial elements on all language levels, incomplete constructions ( at phonetic, syntactical and partially morphological levels), the use of language units of concrete meaning at all the levels, non-characteristic use of means with abstract and generalized meaning, weak syntactic connections between the parts of a syntactic structure, active use of means of verbal imagery, means of expressing subjective appraisal, emotional and expressive means at all the levels, pat terned speech, specific phraseology , personal forms, nonce-words. Language means the colloquial style. graphic means: graphic signs as the reflection of phonetic processes of sound modification in fluent speech, graphic signals of the change of communicative roles; ; phonetic means: intensive modification of sounds in fluent speech, positional phonemic interchange(combinatorial accommodation, assimilation, dissimulation and positional changes, connected with the position of a sound in a word at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of the word, stressed or unstressed position, etc. ). Positional changes: reduction (weakening) of vowels in unstressed syllables) and arterial devoicing of consonants at the end of the word before a pause. Complete reduction: Pokka (the drop of the final consonant or final part of the word), syncope ( the drop of a vowel or several sounds in other positions). Partial reduction as a qualitative change of vowels.Partial and complete devoicing of consonants at the end of a word. Stylistic and communicative effects of modification. Wealth and variety of intonation patterns ( rhythm, tempo, timbre, melody peculiarities); ; vocabulary: conversational (everyday life) vocabulary, priority of neutral widely-used words with incorrect, denotative, referential meanings, wide use of non-literary vocabulary, expressive-emotional vocabulary, means of verbal imagery, well-developed synonymy and polymers, the use of stylistic devices, including pun, decomposition of phraseologies units; in word-formation: emotive suffixes and prefixes, wide use of word-formation, expressive tautology.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Systems in Earth Abides essays In George R. Stewarts novel Earth Abides, a vivid and highly detailed future of society is painted. After a fast spreading and fast acting disease has all but destroyed civilization, seemingly infecting nothing but humans, only a few survivors are left to live on and determine the future of the human race. But how will the once stable ecosystem of an entire planet react to such a drastic change as the end of civilization as we know it? To answer this question it is important to understand the many concepts and processes involved in systems. First, it is imperative to understand what a system is. A system is a structured set of components which are related to each other and which operate together as a complex whole. There are several types of systems, with the most common being open and closed systems. Consider the desert in chapter 3. As an example of an open system, that is, one in which both energy and materials pass through the system, the materials passing through are the humans and their chips of stone and roads, while the energy could be the wind blowing through. It becomes a closed system, that is, one in which only energy passes through, when the human intervention ceased, and all that is left was the wind (although technically grains of sand could be carried out of the system). Initially after the fall, little changed. For example, the novels main character, Isherwood Williams, henceforth referred to as Ish, was on an almost hermetic research retreat at the beginning of the novel, and thus knows nothing of the plague until he heads into town one day. Upon his first contacts with abandoned homes, there is so little changed that he thinks nothing of it other than perhaps the inhabitants are on vacation, or at a baseball game. As time began to pass, however, the full effect of the loss of civilization on the environment began to be felt. Dogs and cats that had been left in kennels or ho...
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Indus Civilization Writing System research paper Indus Civilization Writing System research paper Indus Civilization Writing System research paper: Early civilization was first witnessed in parts of Asia and Middle East. Egyptians and Sumerians were some of the oldest people to develop in the world. In East and South Asia similar developments were being implemented along river bends and valleys. Some of these oldest developments were being carried out in the Yellow River valley, China. Here, the rich silt from Northern China provided the ideal grounds for civilization. The first Asian civilization was witnessed in the Indus River Valley. This civilization was witnessed in the 3rd millennium B.C (Kenoyer 7). This was more than a millennium prior to the Yellow River development. This civilization is also known as Harappan culture and can be categorized in the Bronze Age development together with Egypt and Mesopotamia. Ravi or Harappan stage was the first to be witnessed in the Indus development. The phase got its name tribute to a river in the vicinity called Ravi River. This Ravi stage lasted for approximately one thousand years. On River Hakra another phase came after Ravi. The phase was known as the Hakra stage. The last phase was known as the Kot Diji phase. In Ravi and Kot Diji stage, settlements some discoveries were made of early writing. These writings were dated back to 3300-2800BC together with the Egypt and Mesopotamian writings. These civilizations covered the whole of present day Pakistan and significant parts of both India and modern Afghanistan. Indus got its name from the Indus River which provided the Indus with water to irrigate and for their domestic use. The silt in the valley provided the fertile soils for agriculture (Kenoyer 26). The strategic position of the Indus valley helped in maintaining security. The Deccan plateau and the Himalayas protected the Indus from attacks from other people. The estimated area was about 1,250,000 km squared. Some of these examples of this extended development were parts of north Afghanistan in Shortughai and Hindon near Delhi in India. The population regarding all these areas was estimated to have reached the heights of about 4.5 million people. Most of this civilization is not fully known to people since it was forgotten till in the early 20th century. Writings of these developments still arenÃ¢â¬â¢t well scrutinized by humans and remains unidentified. Like it s rival civilization, Indus disappeared in a mystery. It is accounted to the disastrous events during the time and the early invasions from their rivals. Most facts remain unknown to people about this civilization; like the language spoken by the people during this development is a mystery, no one can tell exactly the names of these people (Mughal 88). This is in contrast with Early Egypt and Mesopotamia civilizations. Most of the people lived in enclosed cities where they could get access to the basic needs more easily. The Indus valley had a number of settlements which were referred to as cities. The residents of these cities were mostly traders and artisans. Trade was more defined here with people from the outside coming to bring their good here. The foreign materials were used for construction of city seals, ornaments for the dwellers and other household goods (Ratnagar 49). The beads made were impressive and were used to make ornaments for the wealthy city dwellers. The seals comprised of images of their gods and animals they reared. Trade goods were well trademarked with these seals. The owners of the goods wanted to maintain the originality of their goods to avoid counterfeits. This gives us the sense of early standardization that still guides production up to today. Goods in our modern trade have to possess a trade mark seal to verify that is original. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s truly the epicenter of urb an society with all the houses in the Indus getting access to water and a good drainage system to maintain the emphasized hygiene. Technologically, most advancement was witnessed in agriculture. But there in Indus area, controversies with some scholars indicating that food was brought to the Indus from foreign land is still heated. Other archeologist like G.Shaffer argued that agriculture was indigenous in the Indus valley. The people here used mostly wheat and cereals. Barley was also a major ingredient in the food used by the Indus. The fertile Indus soil can give a supporting hand on this. The land here was also productive due to the adequate water for irrigation from the rivers in these areas. The agriculture as the studies suggests must have been enough to feed a large number of people in the Indus valley. Technology in agriculture must also have borrowed some aspect here. The plough was also used in this valley for cultivating the land. Although there is no evidence of a defined system of irrigation, the frequent floods might have been used to water the crops in the fields (Ratnagar 63). The Indus must have dug canals to divert water to build small lands that were managed by small number of people unlike in most early civilizations that people were forced to work on lager rice plantations. Moreover, the act of water harvesting was practiced in the Indus valley. This was a major step forward on the modern technology in agriculture where the water stored can be used to grow crops. Studies have shown presence of some reservoirs on the Indus valley. The people in this civilization depended on the monsoon winds which made the weather pattern to provide rainfall for only four months in a year (Thapar 28). The stored water was hence used the dry periods of the year for both domestic and agriculture use. Inclusive of all these advancement scripting and writing was also developed by the Indus. The rocky terrain and metal availability in the valley was a major influence to invention of these writings. In Indus valley, several writings have been found .The oldest and most prominent writings were several forms of seals. The seals are still in good conditions and the written material is quite visible. These seals were made of metal or rock curved in some shapes and writings scripted on them. Seals were useful to the Indus as they were used to mark their belongings and trade goods. Since clay and other malleable were widely used here, seals were very important in making impressions on them. Most of these seals have being around the world of archeologists but very little have been heard from them depicting what the seals represented. The progress on finding the truth about these well-designed writings cannot be wholly seen as blame on the scholars. The earlier used clues by archeologist to decipher the writings were all missing in the Indus scripts. The writings were small and brief bearing 5 symbols as the mean number of writings per seal. The mammoth but few seals had up to 26 symbols. Language that the Indus used is a mystery and no one knows the meaning of a single symbol in the seals. Texts in these seals were not bilingual. Scholars have come up with different theories to try and uncover this mystery. The first one was just a little acknowledgment on the non prior or present existence of such a language. Some said that the language was Aryan. This is a mixture of several languages; Indian, Iranian, Indonesian and English. Since most Northern Indians spoke Indo-European so the people here in the Indus Valley might have spoken old Indo-European language (Ratnagar 49). Although this might seem like a slight break through, the major short coming is giving to the fact that Indo-European cultures used horses in all their transportation purposes and none was discovered on the seals or the remains of horses on the Indus soil. Furthermore, archeologist yet came up with another theory which stated that the language was Dravidian. This language is spoken mostly in South India. This theory can be seen as the closest one to uncovering this mystery. The Vedic texts have shows some considerable influence of the Dravidian language. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s thought that the Aryan replaced the Dravidian. The Dravidian might have formed the basis of what is currently spoken by Indians. A feature like the retroflex consonants in Indian pronunciations is some but a few evidence supporting this theory. There is also the structural examination that shows the Dravidian presence in Indus valley texts. The analysis simply states the possible agglutinative nature of the language spoken in the Indus valley. The language here had a number of similar signs with different signals ranging from 1 to 3 per sign. The final signs acted as the suffixes to modify words giving them a new meaning. This is well displayed by the Dravidian language. The language used by Indus had approximately 400 script symbols and about 200 signs. The script used must have been logo phonetic; signs were used for their real meaning and phonetic values. Most of the writings were in picture forms but the signs at the end changed the mother meaning of a word. With all these writings the Indus could possible and effectively communicate through scripted pieces of metal, reeds or rocks. The seals were mostly useful in trade arenas where they could be used to mark goods and be used as currencies, pass to some areas and so on. The civilization of the Indus was a major step forward to what we enjoy today in terms of technology, and advancement in major fields of our lives. Ranging in all dimensions of food, life style, and health education and scripting information on materials in our modern world. The Indus mostly feed on bread made of wheat. Barley and rice were also used as food in the Indus valley. Fruits were many in this area, consisting of peas, dates with some areas melons being grown for nutrition. This is the life style in Middle East; these foods are still eaten today there and all over the world (Thapar 28). With all these contributions to the civilization of the world the Indus made a major step forward towards the urbanization of most parts of the world. The trade, city planning, transportation and agriculture made it possible to have our modern cities and have strategies to manage their lives in a mannerly way. ______________ is a professional research paper writing service which can provide high school, college and university students with 100% original custom written essays, research papers, term papers, dissertations, courseworks, homeworks, book reviews, book reports, lab reports, projects, presentations and other assignments of top quality. More than 700 professional Ph.D. and MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s academic writers. Feel free to buy a research paper online on Indus Civilization from our custom research paper writing service.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Report on Competing with Information Technology - Research Paper Example The issues addressed include; various ways that Spotify music service uses IT to compete with iTunes music service and the technologies leveraged by the two corporations to enable competitive advantage. Most customers are mindful about the music delivery business and the effectiveness of each one of them. Because the music industry will exist into the foreseeable future, most music companies are developing strategies that will help them capture a larger share of the market among its rivals (Kusek et al. 82; Latham 4). This competition, however, has streamed down to only two main competitors existing in the market. These music services include the Apple iTunes and Spotify. These two music services experience large economies of scale and have a huge demand on a global scale. Both Apple iTunes and Spotify have pressed on with sweeping overhauls of their digital music services that allow fair competition. Apple iTunes has about 800 million customer accounts out of which 200 million customers are active buyers. Spotify, on the other hand began in Sweden and move into the United States in 2011. Spotify currently has about 15 million customers that subscribe through payments and 45 millio n customers that listen free, with advertising (Lester 49). There, however, exist various uncertainties as to how Spotify music service will match up to Apple iTunes. Michael PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s value chain is applied in iTunes service in order to get an insight of the chain of activities involved before a valuable service is provided to the consumers. Apple iTunes is a service that comes in form of an online platform providing music distribution structures(OÃ¢â¬â¢Grady 112). The Value-chain model of iTunesÃ¢â¬â¢ primary activities is as follows 1. Content creation- the content is regulated by licensing agreement partnerships with various music labels.In this partnership, iTunes offer artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ music to customers and for each download Apple is entitled a share in revenues. 2.