Saturday, August 22, 2020

Definition and Examples of Language-Style Matching

Definition and Examples of Language-Style Matching In discussion, messaging, messaging, and different types of intuitive correspondence, the inclination of members to utilize a typical jargon and comparable sentence structures. The term phonetic style coordinating (likewise called language style coordinating or basically style coordinating) was presented by Kate G. Niederhoffer and James W. Pennebaker in their article Linguistic Style Matching in Social Interaction (Language and Social Psychology, 2002). In a later article, Sharing Ones Story, Niederhoffer and Pennebaker note that individuals are slanted to coordinate discussion accomplices in etymological style, paying little heed to their aims and responses (The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology, 2011). Models and Observations Robin: To a pariah tuning in to their discussion, solid families are less straightforward than normal ones. John: Less? Since? Robin: Their discussion is speedier, increasingly entangled. They hinder and finish every others sentences. There are large hops starting with one thought then onto the next thought just as bits of the contention are passed up a great opportunity. John: But its solitary outcasts that think that its befuddling? Robin: Exactly. The discussion isnt as clean and coherent and deliberately organized as it very well may be with to some degree less sound families, closer the center of the range. Thoughts are coming so thick and quick that they continue hindering and topping every others explanations. They can do that since everybody handles what others are attempting to state before theyve got done with saying it. John: Because they see each other so well. Robin: Right. So what resembles absence of control is really an indication of their curiously great communication.(Robin Skynner and John Cleese, Life and How to Survive It. W.W. Norton, 1995) Semantic Style Matching in Relationships Fascination isn't about acceptable looks; a wonderful discussion is significant as well. To test the thought, [Eli] Finkel, [Paul] Eastwick, and their associates [at Northwestern University] saw language-style coordinating, or how much people coordinated their discussion to that of their accomplice orally or recorded as a hard copy, and how it identified with fascination. This verbal coordination is something we unwittingly do, in any event a tad, with anybody we address, however the scientists thought about whether an elevated level of synchrony may offer pieces of information about what kinds of individuals people would need to see again.In an underlying examination the specialists broke down forty speed dates for language use. They found that the more comparative the two daters language was, the almost certain it was that they would need to get together once more. No issues up until now. In any case, may that language-style coordinating additionally help foresee whether a date or two will advance to a serious relationship? To discover, the scientists examined texts from submitted couples who visited day by day, and thought about the degree of language-style coordinating with relationship strength estimates assembled utilizing a normalized poll. A quarter of a year later the specialists returned to check whether those couples were still attached and had them round out another survey. The gathering found that language-style coordinating was likewise prescient of relationship strength. Individuals involved with elevated levels of language-style coordinating were twice as liable to at present be together when the specialists caught up with them three months after the fact. Evidently discussion, or if nothing else the capacity to match up and jump in the same spot, made a difference. (Kayt Sukel, Dirty Minds: How Our Brains Influence Love, Sex, and Relationships. Free Press, 2012) Examples of Linguistic Style Matching [P]eople likewise unite in the manners they talkthey will in general embrace similar degrees of custom, emotionality, and subjective intricacy. At the end of the day, individuals will in general utilize similar gatherings of capacity words at comparable rates. Further, the more the two individuals are locked in with each other, the more intently their capacity words match.The coordinating of capacity words is called language style coordinating, or LSM. Examinations of discussions find that LSM happens inside the initial fifteen to thirty seconds of any association and is by and large past cognizant mindfulness. . . .Style coordinating comes and goes through the span of a discussion. In many discussions, style coordinating typically begins very high and afterward steadily drops as the individuals keep on talking. The explanation behind this example is that toward the start of the discussion its essential to associate with the other individual. . . . As the discussion moves on, the spe akers start to get progressively agreeable and their consideration begins to meander. There are times, in any case, that style coordinating will promptly increment. (James W. Pennnebaker, The Secret Life of Pronouns: What Our Words Say About Us. Bloomsbury Press, 2011) Semantic Style Matching in Hostage Negotiations Taylor and Thomas (2008) inspected 18 classes of etymological style in four fruitful and five ineffective dealings. They found that at the conversational level fruitful exchanges included more coordination of etymological styles between the prisoner taker and mediator, including critical thinking style, relational considerations, and articulations of feeling. At the point when mediators imparted to put it plainly, positive blasts and utilized low sentence unpredictability and solid reasoning, prisoner takers would frequently coordinate this style. . . . Generally speaking, the driving component that decided etymological style-coordinating conduct relied upon the prevailing party in the exchange: Successful cases were set apart by the arbitrator playing the predominant job, actualizing a positive discourse, and directing the prisoner takers response.(Russell E. Palarea, Michel G. Gelles, and Kirk L. Rowe, Crisis and Hostage Negotiation. Military Psychology: Clinical and Operational Ap plications, second ed., ed. via Carrie Kennedy and Eric A. Zillmer. Guilford Press, 2012) Verifiable Style Matching As of late the style coordinating among chronicled figures has been inspected utilizing authentic records. One case includes the verse of Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning, a nineteenth century English couple who compromised with and in the long run wedded of their composing professions. By following their verse, a feeling of their motions in their relationship emerged.(James W. Pennnebaker, Frederica Facchin, and Davide Margola, What Our Words Say About Us: The Effects of Writing and Language. Cozy Relationships and Community Psychology: An International Perspective, ed. by Vittorio Cigoli and Marialuisa Gennari. FrancoAngeli, 2010) Phonetic Style Matching in Fiction Individuals dont talk a similar way except if they are consolidated in some regular reason, have basic lives, objectives, wants. The incredible slip-up of such a significant number of composition authors in their interpretation of discourse is to record its grammatical erraticisms and propensities indiscreetly; e.g., theyll have an uneducated worker talk a similar route as an uneducated hooligan. Or then again, a cop will talk a similar path as those he menaces and captures. The sign of brightness and trustworthiness in discourse interpretation dwells in the separation of language patterns.(Gilbert Sorrentino, Hubert Selby. Something Said: Essays by Gilbert Sorrentino. North Point, 1984)

Thursday, July 16, 2020

Using Zyban to Help You Quit Smoking

Using Zyban to Help You Quit Smoking Addiction Nicotine Use How to Quit Smoking Print How Zyban Can Help With Quitting Smoking By Terry Martin facebook twitter Terry Martin quit smoking after 26 years and is now an advocate for those seeking freedom from nicotine addiction. Learn about our editorial policy Terry Martin Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Sanja Jelic, MD on August 13, 2015 Sanja Jelic, MD, is board-certified in sleep medicine, critical care medicine, pulmonary disease, and internal medicine.   Learn about our Medical Review Board Sanja Jelic, MD Updated on February 07, 2020 Fuse/Getty Images More in Addiction Nicotine Use How to Quit Smoking After You Quit Nicotine Withdrawal Smoking-Related Diseases The Inside of Cigarettes Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Drug Use Coping and Recovery Zyban is the brand name for the generic drug bupropion hydrochloride. It is a nicotine-free quit aid. Originally marketed as an anti-depressant drug under the brand name of Wellbutrin, it became apparent that bupropion was an effective quit aid because smokers using it to treat depression also lost interest in smoking. People not planning to quit smoking found themselves stopping with relative ease. Later, bupropion hydrochloride was given the brand name of Zyban and in  1997, the FDA approved it as a quit smoking aid.  When used in combination with  nicotine replacement therapy  (NRTs), the chance for long-term success with smoking cessation increases.?? Note:    it is important to be monitored by your doctor if youre using both Zyban and an NRT as  high blood pressure  can be a concern.?? How It Works It isnt completely understood how Zyban works, but we do know that it alters brain chemistry in such a way that  nicotine  is rendered less effective.?? The result is a reduced interest in smoking, and  nicotine cravings and withdrawal are minimal. While this medication was developed as an anti-depressant, you do not need to suffer from depression for it to work as a quit aid.  That said, if you develop  quit-related depression, Zyban may help to offset the symptoms. Usage Zyban is not sold over the counter, so you must see your doctor for a prescription. To begin with, you take Zyban while youre still smoking. Days 1 - 3:    One 150 mg tablet once a day. Days 4 - 7:    One 150 mg tablet twice a day, at least 8 hours apart. Its a good idea to space your pills out so that the second pill of the day is several hours before bedtime as bupropion can make it hard to get to sleep.?? Week 2:    Continue to take one pill twice a day, at least 8 hours apart. Stop smoking during week two, on the day you picked to quit. Week 3 and beyond:    Continue as with week 2. The recommended course of treatment is 7 weeks, but it can be taken for a longer period of time.?? Your doctor will help you decide when you should stop treatment. If youre unable to stop smoking by the end of week 3, your doctor may discontinue this medication as it might not be a good fit for you as a quit aid.  If that happens, dont worry. There are  several other options  on the market today that could work better for you. Very Important:  If you miss a dose and its close to time for the next one, skip that pill. Never take a double dose to catch up as this could increase the risk for seizures.?? If you take too much Zyban accidentally,  call your doctor, poison control or go to an emergency room at your local hospital immediately, even if youre not experiencing anything out of the ordinary. Also,  never stop taking this drug abruptly,  unless you have one of the side effects in the section below where that is recommended. Consult with your doctor immediately if this happens. Who Should Not Use Zyban Zyban isnt suitable for everyone.  Avoid it if:?? You use any other drug containing bupropion hydrochlorideYou have or have had a seizure disorderYou have or have had an eating disorderYou are taking or have recently taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI)You are pregnant or nursingYou are allergic to bupropion hydrochlorideYou are abruptly discontinuing alcohol or sedatives(including benzodiazepines) Common Side Effects Dry mouthDizzinessInsomniaChange in appetiteChange in sense of tasteWeight lossStomach painNauseaVomitingAnxietyExcitementHeadachesStuffy noseUncontrollable shaking in a part of the bodyRinging in the earsSore throatExcessive sweatingFrequent urination If any of the above side effects become severe or dont go away, see your doctor. Side Effects You Should Seek Immediate Medical Attention For: seizureshallucinationsconfusionirrational fearsrapid, pounding or irregular heart ratemuscle or joint pain Side Effects That Warrant Stopping Zyban Immediately: Rash or blistersFeverItchingSwelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, lower legsHoarsenessDifficulty breathing or swallowingChest pain If you experience any of these side effects, discontinue Zyban and see your doctor or go to an emergency room right away. In 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration required the makers of Zyban and Chantix, a similar quit aid to post a warning on product packaging about potentially severe side effects. If you have any problems not listed here that are troublesome and youre concerned about whether they might be related to Zyban, check in with your doctor as soon as possible. Effectiveness Of the small number of studies done on Zyban efficacy over the years, success rates seem to be in the 30% range for people who are smoke-free at the one year mark.??  When used with NRTs however, the rate climbs slightly to approximately 35.5% for those who didnt smoke at all during the first year.?? More importantly, perhaps, is how effective Zyban can be when you couple it with a good support group of like-minded individuals for smoking cessation.??  Whether online or in person, support may be the single most important quit tool you can employ.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Movie The Yellow Wallpaper And The Popular Film ``...

In both the story â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† and the popular film â€Å"The Shining† there is a strong emphasis on isolation and the later onset of madness. How does isolation lead to madness and how does it affect the characters in these stories over time? Also, are both stories comparable with how the onset of madness occurs or do the characters end up crazy from completely different events. In the story â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† Jane is diagnosed with hysteria, which at the time led to those deemed with this â€Å"complication† to undergo the bedrest prescription. Which often did nothing for the person but made them angry over time. While in â€Å"The Shining† the character Jack goes mad from the haunted hotel he works at, and previously had a bad drinking†¦show more content†¦(phycology today) They have their contrasts, however a similarity they both illnesses have is that they often have fits of rage and interpersonal violence as a symptom. In â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper†, Jane fits the role of a sociopath due to her disjointed thoughts and paranoia which came as a side effect from her isolation during bedrest. While Jack is not as clear cut, he later acts as a sociopath when he slips back into his bad habits of drinking, and being abusive while also being manipulated by the hotel’s ghosts. Jack sometimes thinks about his actions before he makes them, which puts him in line with being psychopath due to pre-meditation. It is apparent that they both have some form of mental illness that they develop over their respective stories, due to them being completely sane during the introductions of both. What led to Jane’s mental instability was being placed on bedrest due to her being diagnosed with hysteria, which at the time was given to women under immense stress. This â€Å"cure† did not actually cure anything. It in fact made these women often go crazy from the isolation they had to end ure. Even the author herself was diagnosed with hysteria and put on the bedrest cure. Which is one reason why she wanted to add this aspect into the game. This cure was extremely prominent during the period the story takes placeShow MoreRelatedAutobilography of Zlatan Ibrahimovic116934 Words   |  468 Pageshappen since back in school when I saw chicks in Ralph Lauren shirts for the first time and almost shit my pants when I was asking them out. But still, I started the season great. I scored goal after goal after goal. We won the UEFA Super Cup. I was shining. I dominated. But I was somebody else. Something had happened, nothing serious, not yet. I had been silenced, and that s dangerous, believe me. I have to be mad to play well. I have to shout and make scenes. Now I kept all that within me. MaybeRead MoreEssay on Fall of Asclepius95354 Words   |  382 PagesA monster in disguise of a princess. Yeah... she said in a child-like tone. Duncan let her back down on the ground. Carmine was very short compared to Duncan. He stood a clear two feet over her. So are we still on for the movie this Friday? Of course. Which movie do you want to see again? Is The Dark Legacy, okay? Sounds good. Great! She looked over her shoulder to her friends. I have to go now, but Ill see you in third period. Ill be counting the hours, he saidRead MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words   |  1186 Pagesand Part II The Harry Potter film franchise is the second highest grossing film franchise of all time, with the five films released to date only slightly behind the 22 James Bond films. The adaption of the final novel in the series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, will be split into two films, with Part I scheduled to be released in 2010 and Part II in 2011. The Harry Potter franchise is seen by movie insiders as critical to staving off the general decline in movie attendance due to economic

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Utopi A Colony Of Human Virtue And Happiness - 3490 Words

Utopia is a thing every modern civilization strives for. In Greek, the word topos means place, but the prefix ou- or eu-, rendered in modern English as u has a double meaning: ou- means no while eu- means good. In other words, the literal translation of utopia can be either good place or â€Å"no place.† When asked the definition of â€Å"utopia† one can assume the recurring answer would correspond to Nathaniel Hawthorne’s opening statement in The Scarlet Letter saying that utopia is â€Å"a colony†¦of human virtue and happiness†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Hawthorne 1). However as human beings, with independent wills and thoughts, the suggestion that a whole community can think and be as one to create that perfection without some kind of restriction is implausible. I assert that social, physical, and mental conditioning must be utilized to create the single-mindedness of a majority to make this society conceivable. In 1516, the first recorded utopian society was found in Thomas More’s novel Utopia. What was first and foremost a biting, satirical take on his own society, held some sincerity into what More pictured as a flawless civilization. To the inhabitants of this country named Utopia, â€Å"their chief concern is what to think of human happiness†¦Ã¢â‚¬  and â€Å"virtue as living according to nature; and God†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (More 65, 66). They are a people who find serenity in holding on to no material possessions and partaking in everything together, contributing to the sense of community. The doors to all the houses are left

Notes on Sociology Free Essays

Choosing a research method Webb, R. , Westergaard, H. , Trobe, K. We will write a custom essay sample on Notes on Sociology or any similar topic only for you Order Now , Steel, L. , (2008) AS Level Sociology, Brentwood: Napier Press p. 162 Sociologists use a range of different research methods and sources of data to collect information and test their theories. In this Topic, we shall identify the main methods and sources used in Sociology. We shall also look at the different types of data that these methods produce. We shall also examine the factors that influence sociologists’ choice of what topic they research, and at some of the main practical, theoretical and ethical (moral) factors that affect their choice of which methods to employ. Types of data P. 163 Sociologists use a wide variety of different methods and sources to obtain data (information or evidence) about society. To make sense of this variety, we can classify them into: †¢ Primary and secondary sources of data. †¢ Quantitative and qualitative data. Primary and secondary sources of data Primary data is information collected by sociologists themselves for their own purposes. These purposes may be to obtain a first – hand ‘picture’ of a group or society, or to test a hypothesis (an untested theory). Methods for gathering primary data include: †¢ Social surveys: these involve asking people questions in a written questionnaire or an interview. †¢ Participant observation: the sociologist joins in with the activities of the group he or she is studying. †¢ Experiments: sociologists rarely use laboratory experiments, but they sometimes use field experiments and the comparative method. A big advantage of using primary data is that sociologists may be able to gather precisely the information they need to test their hypotheses. However, doing so can often be costly and time consuming. Secondary data is information that has been collected by someone else for their own purposes, but which the sociologist can then use. Sources of secondary data include: †¢ Official statistics produced by government on a wide range of issues, such as crime, divorce, health and unemployment, as well as other statistics produced by charities, businesses, churches and other organisations. †¢ Documents such as letters, diaries, photographs, official (government) reports, novels, newspapers and television broadcasts. Using secondary data can be a quick and cheap way of doing research, since someone else has already produced the information. However, those who produce it may not be interested in the same questions as sociologists, and so secondary sources may not provide exactly the information that sociologists need. Quantitative and qualitative data Quantitative data refers to information in a numerical form. Examples of quantitative data include official statistics on how many girls passed five or more GCSEs or on the percentage of marriages ending in divorce. Similarly, information collected by opinion polls and market research surveys often comes in the form of quantitative data – for example, on the proportion of the electorate intending to vote for a particular party or how many people take holidays abroad. Qualitative data, by contrast gives a ‘feel’ for what something is like – for example, what it feels like to get good GCSE results, or for one’s marriage to end in divorce. Evidence gathered by using participant observation aims to give us a sense of what it feels like to be in that person’s ‘shoes. These methods can provide rich descriptions of these people’s feelings and experiences. Factors influencing choice of method P. 164 Given the wide range of methods available, how do we select the right one for our research? Different methods and sources of data have different strengths and limitations and we need to be able to evaluate these when selecting which to use. We can look at these strengths and limitations in terms of a number of practical, ethical (moral) and theoretical issues. Practical issues Different methods present different practical problems. These include: Time and money Different methods require different amounts of time and money and this may influence the sociologists’ choice. For example, large – scale surveys may employ dozens of interviewers and data – inputting staff and cost a great deal of money. By contrast, a small – scale project involving a lone researcher using participant observation may be cheaper to carry out, but it can take several years to complete. The researcher’s access to resources can be a major factor in determining which methods they employ. A well – known professor will probably have access to more research funds than a young student, for example. Requirements of funding bodies Research institutes, businesses and other organisations that provide the funding for research may require the results to be in a particular form. For example, a government department funding research into educational achievement may have targets for pass rates and so require quantitative data to see whether these targets are being achieved. This means the sociologist will have to use a method capable of producing such data, such as questionnaires or structured interviews. Personal skills and characteristics Each sociologist possesses different personal skills, and this may affect their ability to use different methods. For example, participant observation usually requires the ability to mix easily with others as well as good powers of observation and recall, while in – depth interviews call for an ability to establish a rapport (relationship of empathy and trust) with the interviewee. Not all sociologists have these qualities and so some may have difficulty using these methods. Subject matter It may be much harder to study a particular group or subject by one method than by another. For example, it might prove difficult for a male sociologist to study an all – female group by means of participant observation, while written questionnaires may be useless for studying those who cannot read. Research opportunity Sometimes the opportunity to carry out research occurs unexpectedly and this means that it may not be possible to use unstructured methods such as questionnaires, which take longer to prepare. For example, a Glasgow gang leader offered ‘James Patrick’ (1973) the chance ‘out of the blue’ to spend time with his gang. With little time to prepare, ‘Patrick’ had no option but to use participant observation. In other circumstances, the researcher may have been able to set up the research opportunity carefully beforehand and have plenty of time to select their methods. P. 165†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Ethical issues Ethics refers to moral issues of right and wrong. Methods that sociologists use to study people may raise a range of ethical questions. The British Sociological Association sets out guidelines for the conduct of research, including the following principles: Informed consent Research participants (the people being studied) should be offered the right to refuse. The researcher should also tell them about all relevant aspects of the research so that they can make a fully informed decision. Consent should be obtained before research begins, and if the study is lengthy, again at intervals throughout the process. Confidentiality and privacy Researchers should keep the identity of research participants secret in order to help to prevent possible negative effects on them. Researchers should also respect the privacy of research participants. Personal information concerning research participants should be kept confidential. Effects on research participants Researchers need to be aware of the possible effects of their work on those they study. These could include police intervention, harm to employment prospects, social exclusion and psychological damage. Wherever possible, researchers should try to anticipate and prevent such harmful effects. Vulnerable groups Special care should be taken where research participants are particularly vulnerable because of their age, disability, or physical or mental health. For example, when studying children in schools, researchers should have regard for issues of child protection. They should obtain the consent of both the child and the parent, and they should provide information in language that the child can understand. Covert research Covert research is when the researcher’s identity and research purpose are hidden from the people being studied. This can create serious ethical problems, such as deceiving or lying to people in order to win their trust or obtain information. Clearly, it is impossible to gain informed consent while at the same time keeping the research or its purpose secret. However, some sociologists argue that the use of covert methods may be justified in certain circumstances. These may include gaining access to areas of social life closed to investigation by secretive, deviant or powerful groups. Theoretical issues This refers to questions about what we think society is like and whether we can obtain an accurate, truthful picture of it. Our views on these issues will affect the kinds of methods we favour using. Validity A valid method is one that produces a true or genuine picture of what something is really like. It allows the researcher to get closer to the truth. Many sociologists argue that qualitative methods such as participant observation give us a more valid or truthful account of what it is like to be a member of a group than quantitative methods such as questionnaires can. This is because participant observation can give us a deeper insight through first hand experience. Reliability Another word for reliability is replicability. A replica is an exact copy of something, so a reliable method is one which, when repeated by another researcher, gives the same results. For example, in Physics or Chemistry, different researchers can repeat the same experiment and obtain the same results every time. In Sociology, quantitative methods such as written questionnaires tend to produce more reliable results than qualitative methods such as unstructured interviews. p. 166 Representativeness Representativeness refers to whether or not the people we study are a typical cross – section of the group we are interested in. Imagine, for example, that we want to know about the effects of divorce on children. It would take a great deal of time and money to study every child of divorced parents, and we might only be able to afford to study a sample of, say, 100 such children. However, if we ensure that our sample is representative or typical of the wider population, we can then use our findings to make generalisations about all children of divorced parents, without actually having to study all of them. Large – scale quantitative surveys that use sophisticated sampling techniques to select their sample are more likely to produce representative data. Methodological perspective Sociologists’ choice of method is also influenced by their methodological perspective – their view of what society is like and how we should study it. There are two contrasting perspectives on the choice of methods: positivism and interpretivism. Positivists – prefer quantitative data, seek to discover patterns of behaviour, see Sociology as a science. Interpretivists – prefer qualitative data, seek to understand social actors’ meanings, reject the view that Sociology is a science. Why do positivists and Interpretivists prefer different types of data? Positivists and Interpretivists collect and use different types of data: positivists prefer quantitative data, while Interpretivists prefer qualitative. This is because they make different assumptions about the nature of society and how we should study it. Positivists: †¢ Assume that society has an objective factual reality – it exists ‘out there’, just like the physical world. †¢ Society exerts an influence over its members, systematically shaping their behaviour patterns. Positivist research uses quantitative data to uncover and measure these patterns of behaviour. †¢ By analysing quantitative data, positivists seek to discover the objective scientific laws of cause and effect that determine behaviour. †¢ Positivists thus prefer questionnaires, structured interviews, experiments and official statistics. These produce data that is both reliable and representative. Interpret ivists: †¢ Reject the idea of an objective social reality – we construct reality through the meanings we give to situations, not the product of external forces. Our actions are based on the meanings we give to situations, not the product of external forces. †¢ Interpretivist research uses qualitative data to uncover and describe the social actor’s ‘universe of meaning’. †¢ By interpreting qualitative data, Interpretivists seek to gain a subjective understanding of actors’ meanings and ‘life worlds’. †¢ Interpretivists thus prefer participant observation, unstructured interviews, and personal documents. These produce data that is valid. Functionalists and Marxists often take a positivist approach. They see society as a large – scale (macro – level) structure that shapes our behaviour. By contrast, interactionists favour an interpretivist approach. They take a micro – level view of society, focusing on small – scale, face – to face interactions. The sociologist’s theoretical perspective is usually the most important factor when choosing which method to use. Whenever possible, they will want to obtain the type of data – quantitative or qualitative – that their perspective views as most appropriate. However, practical and ethical factors usually limit the choice of method. Just because a sociologist prefers a particular kind of data, doesn’t mean that they can simply go ahead and gather it. Time, resources, access, consent, privacy and so on are all constraints on their choice. Finally, even sheer chance may determine the method used. For example, David Tuckett (2001) describes how one postgraduate Sociology student found himself taken ill with tuberculosis and confined to a hospital ward, so he used this as an opportunity to conduct a participant observation study. Choice of topic p. 167. Before choosing which method to use, sociologists need to decide what topic they wish to study. Several factors influence their choice: Theoretical perspective The sociologist’s theoretical perspective is a major influence upon their choice of research topic. For example, a New Right researcher may study the effects of welfare benefits on the growth of lone – parent families, since the idea of welfare dependency is central to their standpoint. By contrast, a feminist researcher is more likely to choose to study domestic violence, as opposition to gender oppression lies at the heart of Feminist theory. Society’s values Sociologists themselves are part of the society they study and thus are influenced by its values. As these values change, so does the focus of research. The rise of Feminism in the 1960s and 1970s led to a focus on gender inequality and the environmentalist concerns of the 21st century have generated interest in ‘green crimes’ such as serious pollution or the unlawful transport of nuclear material. Funding bodies Most research requires funding from an external body. These bodies include government agencies, charitable organisations and businesses. As the funding body is paying for the research, it will determine the topic to be investigated. For example, one of the major social concerns of New Labour governments after 1997 was the ‘social exclusion’ of some disadvantaged groups. As a result, government departments were keen to fund research projects to investigate the causes and effects of social exclusion. Practical factors Practical factors, such as the inaccessibility of certain situations to the researcher, may also restrict what topic they are able to study. For example, although sociologists may wish to study the ways in which global corporations make their decisions, this may not be possible because these are made in secrecy. Summary Sociologists test their theories using quantitative or qualitative data. Sociologists obtain primary data themselves, using methods including questionnaires, interviews and observation. Secondary data are produced by others but used by sociologists. In choosing a method, sociologists take several issues into account: †¢ Practical issues include time and funding. †¢ Ethical issues include whether the researcher deceives the subjects. †¢ Theoretical issues include validity (does the method give a truthful picture? ), reliability (can it be replicated? ) and representativeness (does it study a typical cross – section? ). Perspective also affects choice of method. Positivists prefer quantitative data; interpretivists favour qualitative data. Choice of topic is also affected by society’s values and funding bodies. How to cite Notes on Sociology, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Major Functional Styles of English free essay sample

Functional style as having social relevance, functionally determined, displaying inner coherence combination of ways of usage, choice and combination of means of speech communication In the domain off certain national language, correlated with other ways of expression of the same type, which attain other alms and fulfill other functions In the social communicative experience of the Functional style as the arrangement of language means in speech ( in the text), built up as the result of the working principles of language means choice and combination in a certain sphere of immunization in accordance with the tasks and conditions of communication M. N. Oozing.The extra-linguistic basis of a functional style, I. E. The tasks and aims of communication in a certain social sphere, determined by the purpose of the correlated form of public thinking, a type of mentality, current in the sphere, typical patterns of contents. Systematic character of a functional style in speech ( functional stylistic correlation of the units on the basis of common communicative purport). We will write a custom essay sample on Major Functional Styles of English or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Functional Styles as speech systems. Functional styles as styles of language and speech. The notion of register ( similar to that of the notion of style) , as series of situational factors, which determine the use of specific language means General classification of functional styles.Linguistic and extra-linguistic factors in the classification of functional styles. The role of extra-linguistic factors in style studies ( the Prague Linguistic Circle). Style forming factors of a functional style. Universal, normative-stylistic character of the style-forming factor of a functional style (motiveless, evaluation, rationality, imagery, logic, exactness) and their difference in accordance with the purport of communication. Functional analysis of the style- forming factors of a functional style V. Schneider. . Problems of the Functional Styles Classification. Reasons for recognizing the style of fiction the belles-letters style : pros and cons.Cons: the language affliction Is multi-stylistic, not closed, It integrates other functional styles of the language, has no specific language markers; the aesthetic function the language affliction which Is expressed in special use of language means with the division of styles into artistic and non;artistic or the treatment of the belles-letters style outside the system of functional styles; in Russian it is not included in the domain of literary language due to a specific character of the literary language and the formation of the latter a under the influence of the language of fiction ( V. D. Bondage, L. Y. Massive, N. A. Mesmerism, A. K. Pangolin, D. N. Schemers. Pros: the language of fiction cannot be beyond the existing system of functional styles as in spite of its multi-stylistic properties it uses only part of the inventory of the elements and units of the other styles but doesnt express its speech systemic character and their use In the aesthetic function Is very pacific; It has the unity of a stylistic speech system, In spite of the authors individuality ]V. V. Flavored, I. V. Arnold, R. A. Budding,l. R. Gapless, B. N. Glove, A. K. Dolan E. G. Riles. So If functional styles should be treated as norms of speech composition there are no objections to treating the belles-letter style as one of the different stylistic meanings.If we suppose that a functional style is identified on the basis of the sphere of communication and its main function, its complexity and heterogeneity shouldnt present an obstacle A. K. Doodling. Reasons for singling out he newspaper style in the system of functional styles Newspaper style as a subsystem of publicist style M. N. Oozing. Newspaper and publicist sub-styles of the so-called informational style Functional style as a historical category. The style of poetry in the English language in the epoch of classicism (17th -18th centuries) with special norms of poetic language the choice of vocabulary, morphological forms and syntactic construction.The priority of abstract, bookish, high-flown words ( arduous, glories abundance of stylistic devices, archaic grammatical forms (thee, thy, doth, etc. , perfect regularity of rhyming, rhythmic, meter, syntactic, compositional and other formal patterns dependence on the canon. Aesthetics, priority of exquisite taste, sensible and noble ideals proclaimed in the poem Poetic Art by Niccole Bubal. The spread of French classical traditions in Great Britain. The Belles-letters Style. Aesthetic function as the main function of the belles-letters style. Aesthetics as one the most important elements of human culture. Aesthetic activity as creative activity in accordance with the laws of beauty.Social determination of aesthetic vision of the world (social interpretation of the of esthetics). The objective grounds for of aesthetics discovered in the existence of the world of reality ( symmetry, rhythm, harmony, integrity, regularity, expediency, optimization). Artistic creation as a special form of cognition and exploration of reality: synthetics of cognitive, evaluative, communicative, practical activities. Art as the objective basis of artistic activity. Works of art as integration of creative activity and perception. Art as self-reflection and code of culture. Other functions: educational, informational, hedonistic (entertaining), evaluative.Stylistic peculiarities f the belles-letters style: imagery, unity and indivisibility of artistic form and contents, completeness and integrity (hierarchy and systematic interaction of different levels of the belles-letters text artistic imagery produced by speech concreteness, stylistic integrity and multi-stylistic variation, (introduction of elements of other styles, e. G. Of the colloquial style in the aesthetic function into the belles- letters style), emotionality and evaluation, emphasis, and uniqueness. Sub-styles of the belles-letters style: poetry, prose, drama. Poetic genres: ballad, ode, pastoral, Monet, elegy, limerick, epigram, etc. Genres in prose: a story, a short story, a novel, etc.Genres in drama: comedy, tragedy, drama, dramatic monologue, dramatic dialogue. Stylistic difference of texts belonging to various sub-styles and genres, literary trends, artistic methods, (romanticism, realism, sentimentalism, etc. ), displaying different types of presentation ( narration, description), points of view of the speaker, ( I-speaking, fairy-tale speaking), topics, ideas, compositional arrangements, systems of imagery, the authors desolates, presence or absence of stabilization. Desolates. Language means of the belles-letters style: ; phonetic means sound reiteration, onomatopoeia (sound imitation), alliteration, euphony, consonance, dissonance.Rhyme, rhythm and meter in poetry, the notion of rhythm in ; vocabulary- priority of concrete words as artistic speech concentration , prose; unlimited choice of vocabulary (including non-literary means, Jargon and slang developed polymers, no limits in the use of words, which belong to different functional stylistic groups of vocabulary, stylistic resources of combinatory semantics of language units, normative and irregular combinatory patterns, creative and other functions of phraseology, decomposition of phraseology, rich, genuine imagery, the use of figures of speech or lexical stylistic devices, as a unique textual system; ; grammatical means of the language: in morphology a variety and wealth of stylistic effects of morphological forms and categories for expressing artistic speech concentration (decides, specific use o f aspect and temporal meanings of the verb, Verbal speech and plot development ( increase in the role and currency of the verb, special use of morphological categories of number, case, egress of comparison for emphatic and emotive purposes; in syntax a variety and wealth of syntactical constructions, colloquial speech stabilization.Means of expressive syntax: inversion, parallelism, antithesis, percolation, gradation, detachment, different models of author and character speech presentation, different models of homogeneous secondary parts of the sentence arrangement with the priority of double and triple patterns; ; compositional textual devices ( three-part compositional canon introduction, the main part and the ending with a more complex model of prologue and epilogue), deviations from the canon and their titlists importance, the plot development the exposition, gradation, the climax and the outcome ( the denouement), compositional peculiarities of a poetic text- rigidly fixed dim ensions of textual arrangement ( the fixed number of feet, lines, regular accentual models of the foot and line arrangement, the length and arrangement of a stanza, peculiar models of stanza and text arrangement, patterned rhyme, meter and syntax constructions), extensive use of foregrounding (coupling, antithesis, convergence, the effect of deceived expectancys effect of replenished expectancy, realism, irony, hyperbole as compositional devices; ; the system of stylistic devices: systemic use of imagery textual, developed and simple non-developed metaphors, metonymys, epithets, similes, hyperbole, litotes, puns, oxymorons, zeugmas, different in form contact and distant repetitions (ordinary, anaphora, peripheral, framing, Indianapolis, chain, refrain) Intensification of the total aesthetic impact of the language means of the text. Scientific Style. The main function of the scientific style: rational cognition and linguistic presentation of the dynamics of thinking. Other communica tive tasks. Inner differentiation and the formation of the sub-styles and genres of the scientific style used in different fields of science, characterized by different manners of scientific presentation. Sub-styles and genres: scientific style proper thesis, abstract of thesis, monograph, article, report, abstract off report Popular scientific an article, annotations, review, etc. ). Sub-languages of scientific styles: law, political, medical, economic, technical, computer, linguistic, etc. Types of presentation: description and argumentation ( deduction, induction). Different degree of polemics. Popularization of the scientific text. The addressee factor. Peculiarities of scientific communication: planned, prepared delayed in time communication (except for lectures and reports). Style-forming features: great role of tradition in the use of language means, objective and non-categorical presentation, specific means of expression, a certain extent of emphasis, restrictions imagery.Language means of the scientific style: ; lexical means highly specialized scientific terminology, terminological groups, revealing the conceptual systems of the scientific style, the peculiarities of the use of terms in scientific speech, the use of nouns and verbs in abstract meanings, special reference words, scientific phraseology clicks, stereotyped and hackneyed word combinations and idioms, priority of neutral vocabulary, limitations in the use of emotional- evaluative and expressive vocabulary and phraseology, absence of non-literary vocabulary and phraseology ( slang words, vulgarisms, obscene words) , peculiarities in word- building (standard suffixes and prefixes, mainly of Greek and Latin origin tell-, morph, Phil- -ism, etc. , peculiarities in the scarce use of imagery (usually trite and hackneyed, the priority of the functions of intensification and decoration, non- hysteretic, narrow contextual character, absence of rich associations, schematic and generalized character); ; grammatical means: nominal character ( the predominance of nouns over verbs) in the use of parts of speech, the use of prepositional of-phrases to substitute the genitive case, transposition of the classes of nouns, wide use of the Passive Voice, Indefinite Tenses, specialization of pronouns in demonstrative and intensification functions, numerous conjunctions revealing the logical order of the text as well as double conjunctions ( not merely. .. But also, whether or both And, as.. . ), adverbs of logical connection ; syntactical means: priority of full, logically correct, regular syntactical models, the syntax of simple sentence in the scientific speech extensive use of extended two- member sentence, priority in the use of compound sentences, extensive use of secondary predicative constructions ( Complex Object, Participial and Gerundial Constructions), wide use of conjunctions and denominative prepositions, concise expression of syntactical connection in word combinations, sentences, groups of sentences, absolute priority of declarative sentences in the use of communicative types of sentences; composition of scientific text as an explication of the stages of cognition and productive thinking, the usual model is presented by the following scheme- a problem situation, idea, hypothesis, proof, conclusion, compositional speech forms of discussion, argumentation and description, conclusion, types of narration, wide-spread co-referential repetition as a specific m ethod of text development.Functional restrictions: strong objections to the use of non-literary vocabulary, scarce use of emotional and intensification units of vocabulary and phraseology, and stylistic devices (metaphors, metonymys, etc. , absence of the second person form and corresponding personal pronouns, scarce use of l- speaking, limited use of incomplete and non-declarative, and one-member sentences. Publicist Style (Journalese). The major functions of the publicist style: social influence and public opinion manipulation; informative function. Additional functions: propaganda, popularization, education, organization, analysis and criticism, hedonism (entertainment). Stylistic features of the publicist style: interchange of standard and expressiveness, explicit evaluation, affective, impressive harasser, stylistic effects of novelty, advertising, mass, group social orientation, pictographs (documentary precision, abundance of statistics, topics and proper names, factual data), neutral or formal manner of presentation, generalization, the styles. Publicist style as a sphere of intersection with the style of fiction / essay, sketch, lampoon, satirical article/ and scientific style commentary, review. Elements of conversational and official styles. Subtitles and genres: publicist style proper / lampoons, articles, essays, sketches, travelogues, memoirs, political propaganda / lagans, leaflets, proclamations, Journalese l, newspapers style editorial (leader) article, brief news, or news columns, report, interview, reportage /, oratory / speeches, parliamentary debates, TV discussions. .. TV and radio Journalese, publicist cinematography (documentary, news-reel, etc. ).New publicist genres: talk-show, reality-show, role-play show, game-show, debates, TV poll, TV commentary, new types of information programs. Inner differentiation of the publicist style and correlation of functional relevance of its different variations and genres. Newspaper Style. Problems of classification. Newspaper genres: editorial (leading article), newsreel, brief news report, reportage, interview, essay, title, topical satire, advertisement. Graphic Means of the newspaper style: wide use of graphic means change of prints, word-arts, italics, various graphic symbols (asterisks, etc. ) used for the sake of text limitation as well as elements of compositional arrangement such as columns, titles, subtitles, parts and paragraphs.Language Means of publicist style: vocabulary: priority of neutral and bookish vocabulary, wide use of language means to actuality Carrolton (proper and geographical names, abundance of statistics, phonemic and proper names, facts and data), means of evaluation, neologisms, social political terminology, a great number of loan-words and international words, use words and word-combinations of other styles ( especially, conversational), against the general background of the bookish style vocabulary, including terminology as well as me ans of imagery to increase expressiveness / trite metaphors, metonymys, personification, metaphorical paraphrases, metaphorical use of terminology, newspaper terms: newspaper vocabulary and cliches Roundels and bookish), decomposition of phraseologies units. Word-building: loan suffixes and prefixes as well as combination of words; ; grammatical means: in morphology the use of the singular number of nouns in their collective meaning, plural number for the definition of generalization, wide use of the superlative degree of adjectives in order to reveal expressiveness as well as the use of adjectives-collaborative, substantiation and evaluation of the use of numerals, adjectives and participles. Average sentence length (9-11 words) and average degree of complexity in the sentence structure. Wide use of declarative sentences.The use of questions, exclamatory sentences for the sake of expressiveness. Means of expressive syntax: inversions, parallelism, antithesis, percolation, gradation, isolation, different types of the authors words presentation and conversational constructions, different patterns in the use of homogeneous parts of the sentence double, three-element and multi- element; ; compositional and textual means: cannonaded three-part structure of publicist texts, the principle of pyramid and its effects in the composition of modern newspaper text, the use of compositional ( foregrounding) devices. Official Style. / The Style of Official Documents l. Regulative function as the main one, I. E. He establishment of norms and rules in the sphere of public relations (e. G. The relations of individuals, group individual relations, the relations of social groups and acts, codes, instructions, orders /, the style official documents / applications, references, protocols, questionnaires, profiles, autobiographies, agreements, contracts.. . /, the style of diplomatic documents / agreements, pacts, communiques, note, memoranda, declarations /. Considerable inner differentiation, I. E. Inconsiderable genre-stylistic distinctions depending on the functional purpose of the text, themes, sphere of use, character of the institution issuing a publication.Stylistic features: standard, imperative and prescriptive nature, ascertaining as leading method of presentation, precision which does not admit misinterpretation, non- personal character. Specific features of the official style characteristic of all its varieties and genres: temple ( pattern) text composition, speech standard and stereotyped ways of expression and arrangement of the language means (cliches, standard vocabulary). Use of the language means belonging to the style of official documents as negative development in speech culture, especially within the norms of publicist style. Language means of the style of official documents: ; graphic means: wide use of graphic means change of the print, italics, the use of graphic delimitation means various graphic symbols (asterisks, lines, patterns, etc. Which clearl y demonstrate text limitation ( columns, division into parts, sections, elements, paragraphs), means of graphic design which reveal the representational form of the temple; ; lexical means: bureaucratic cliches ( words or word- ambitions), the use of special terminology to express precision, repetitions, the use of constructions with archaic elements, wide spread of vocabulary units, expressing obligation, absence of subjective emotional appraisal; ; grammatical means: nominal character / predominance of nouns, a great number of nominal prepositions and conjunctions, wide use of the genitive case, different forms of expressing imperative / verbs with the meaning of obligation, verbs of instruction, prescription, future tense forms, the imperative mood, infinitive and infinitive constructions, absence of the first and second person presentation and correlated rounds, the use of collective nouns for the expression of impersonality, different patterns of statement and ascertaining, spe cific use of aspect and tense forms ( future in conditional sentences, wide use of conditional sentences in connection with the necessity of detailed exposition and proviso, rare use of complex sentences, especially with subordinate sentences of cause because of the absence of the necessity to explicate logical operations of analysis and reasoning; ; compositional devices: the patterned structure of texts of all the genres and subtitles, declarative, ascertaining nature, neglect of narration and discussion. Colloquial (Conversational) Style. The main function is communication, realization of practical activity of a person. It is used in everyday life. Extra-linguistic features: informality, spontaneous character of speech, interpersonal contact and direct involvement in the process of communication, attraction of paralinguistic means of communication (gestures, expression of the face, movements).Stylistic features: familiarity, ellipsis, concrete character of speech, interruption and logical inconsistency of the speech, motiveless, efficacy. Secondary stylistic features: idiomatic and pattern character, personal type of speech presentation. Oral and written (epistolary) varieties. Two forms of speech: dialogue (simple dialogue and polygene) and monologue. Inner mood, aims, relations between the speakers, situation and theme of the conversation. Subtitles and genres: literary conversational style / talks, conversations, interviews l, familiar-conversational style / communication between family members, friends, intimate communication, childrens talk l, low colloquial / quarrels, abuse, scandal, squabble, insult l.Language peculiarities: high activity of non-bookish means of the engage ( with stylistic conversational and familiarity coloring, the use of non- bookish low colloquial elements on all language levels, incomplete constructions ( at phonetic, syntactical and partially morphological levels), the use of language units of concrete meaning at all the levels, non-characteristic use of means with abstract and generalized meaning, weak syntactic connections between the parts of a syntactic structure, active use of means of verbal imagery, means of expressing subjective appraisal, emotional and expressive means at all the levels, pat terned speech, specific phraseology , personal forms, nonce-words. Language means the colloquial style. graphic means: graphic signs as the reflection of phonetic processes of sound modification in fluent speech, graphic signals of the change of communicative roles; ; phonetic means: intensive modification of sounds in fluent speech, positional phonemic interchange(combinatorial accommodation, assimilation, dissimulation and positional changes, connected with the position of a sound in a word at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of the word, stressed or unstressed position, etc. ). Positional changes: reduction (weakening) of vowels in unstressed syllables) and arterial devoicing of consonants at the end of the word before a pause. Complete reduction: Pokka (the drop of the final consonant or final part of the word), syncope ( the drop of a vowel or several sounds in other positions). Partial reduction as a qualitative change of vowels.Partial and complete devoicing of consonants at the end of a word. Stylistic and communicative effects of modification. Wealth and variety of intonation patterns ( rhythm, tempo, timbre, melody peculiarities); ; vocabulary: conversational (everyday life) vocabulary, priority of neutral widely-used words with incorrect, denotative, referential meanings, wide use of non-literary vocabulary, expressive-emotional vocabulary, means of verbal imagery, well-developed synonymy and polymers, the use of stylistic devices, including pun, decomposition of phraseologies units; in word-formation: emotive suffixes and prefixes, wide use of word-formation, expressive tautology.