Friday, December 6, 2019

Tata Consultancy Services and Satisfaction

Question: Discuss about theTata Consultancy Services and Satisfaction. Answer: Introduction: According to the case study, currently, Tata Group comprises of about 100 companies along with 300 subsidiaries operating in 40 businesses. It is indeed a challenge when the group has to succeed in all the businesses especially when the Indian economy would be showing and some of the affiliates of Tata would be stumbling. Therefore, the Tata Group should require to take up some significant spin offs to ensure for further expansion globally across verticals. Secondary Problems Ratan Tatas big passion of one lakh car has not turned out to be as successful as projected. Ratan Tata himself opines that the car has failed to meet up to lofty aims as previously conceived. It has failed in terms of innovation as it did not re-invent any new business. Tata has taken mammoth risk of overtaking Corus. It is estimated that the company would have to bear Corus debt of $7.4 billion along with Corus high cost operations. Taking over Jaguar and Land Rover can be challenging as Tata would have to climb quite high to bring back the lost status of Jaguar as luxury vehicle. Long Term The company is yet to slim down so that it can spend more on innovation and other profitable ventures. Currently, the company is operating in 40 major businesses with over 400 companies and subsidiaries. Ratan Tata the brain behind Tatas expansion since last few decades would be retiring and a new leader has to be chosen. So, in the coming years as Tata Group would be advancing it would be more in need of skilled workforce, succession planning, diversify with innovation. Analysis As per SWOT analysis one of the major strengths of Tata Group has been its human resource retention policies, superlative training and CSR policies. These two major strengths have led Tata to operationalise CSR being a family held business and gain as most trusted and valued group of companies. The significance of human element while making strategies for ensuring organizational development in each decade increased the capability domain as a firm. The perks and allowances offered by the Tata Group are considered to be one of finest within its home country, India. Tata Group has been taken to be one of the pioneers of initiating for employee training, quality initiatives and productivity. The CSR policies dating back to pre-independence period backed Mahatma Gandhi during his agitation for rights of immigrant Indian in South Africa (Srivastava, Negi, Mishra, Pandey, 2012). One of the main reasons behind the groups substantial expansion in India since the 1990s was its ability to adapt quickly, enjoy the first mover advantage against the competitive business environment. The government adopted the policies of privatization, liberalization and globalization resulted in influx of Japanese, Korean majors using FDI route, and Tata adopting Internationalisation route (Kamath, 2006). As a result of which, the companies were freed from dead-end policies like the licensing policies. Tata Group took best of the changing business environment and opportunities accompanying with it. As mentioned in the article, as India was dismantling business controls, the Tata took risky plunges into the telecom like NTT Docomo (Japan) and enter other areas of manufacturing sector engaging in forward and backward integration. The Tata Group can also be said to have applied the survival theory in a way where it has to an extend disregarding human resource based theory (Seshadri e t al. 2006). After opening of markets, the domestic market was expected to have become all the more competitive, they involved advanced level of technology and innovate to increase productivity and hence ISO, TQM, TPM, Six sigma were deployed (Maroor, 2015). Inward looking strategy to align its elements against the drastic step of downsizing its employee based was adopted and Tata invested the capital saved to diversify , enhance innovation and technological infusion. So, basically, on taking external business environment it is more of the concept of contingency theory, Tata Group organic growth happened through MA, stakeholder buyout. It has enabled it to foray into new unrelated ventures (B2B) by prospecting the business environment grabbing the opportunity like Tata BP Solar (Bhattacharya Datta, 2010). The theory of profit maximization and competition-based is expressed on the notion that the main objective of business entity is to maximize profits for long term period followed by development of a sustainable competitive advantage over the business entitys rivals belonging to its external market (Nadkarni Branzei, 2008). Tata Group has been identified to have made use of this theory quite effectively when it in the last two decades the Group has taken some big steps to go global. For instance, Tata Steels taking over of Corus followed by Internationalisation theory aggressively bidding for Jaguar and Land Rover, Corus steel in steel industry when it comes to the context of the companys bold global outlook of strategy building (Economist, 2012). Streamlining TQM, TPM that aids in productivity and efficiency Tata Group has diversified into unrelated fields driving the stupendous growth was led by Ratan Tata (Sarkar Hazarika, 2010). But as he is growing old he has understood the changing global business scenario and direct towards diversifications at right time even in new markets or enter new line of business. According to Ratan Tata, the number of group branches was consolidated to have more focus on profit making sectors, related business areas. One of the major disadvantages of Tata Group is that its home country India is still developing but it has aptly harnessed the technology based competencies of students in engineering education to adapt to the challenges of the domestic job (Singh, 2008). Upskilling and training to compete at world level saw Tata scaling down from a truck/trailer to built worlds cheapest car (under $2500) unveiled at Geneva motor show (Kang Sidhu, 2011) (The Economist, 2009). It faced competition at home with Japanese and Korean auto firms, but continuous RD led to evolution of Tata Group. Labour in India is cheap but not that efficient when professional skill and knowledge are taken into account (Seshadri et al. 2006) Therefore, when the boom period of India would be fading, Tata Group can face problems especially when it would be lacking market share due to intense competition. The Group faces both short and long term problems. However, if competitive advantage of the organization is analysed, it would be found that the Group can overcome its problems if right mix of competencies, previous experience, enabling effective business decisions by the new leadership and IT. The following are the perceived competitive advantage of Tata: Tata Group has advantageous position as it is cash rich. This will enable to group to have adequate time to take recover from sudden jolts. The Group has a very strong benevolent corporate image and CSR agenda. This is indeed an asset for the green technology in engineering and product reengineering to survive in local and global market (Shao, 2013). The group has successfully been able to establish connections at global level with business partners like Corus and Ford. The group has huge domestic market to cater to. So, the domestic market work more as a safe cushion even when there are some crisis in the international market. Tata Group has still the advantage of huge pool of low cost labour The company has long standing relationships low political risks, with the state and the government in India Criteria Evaluation Goals of Tata going forward are to meet the emission norms, and the target is to switch to green technology reengineering to sustain the business verticals. Thus an apt operations agenda to focus on production and efficiency reach 98% to equip any line of business Tata in 2016. Increase of targets 2016-2017, the market share for profit making verticals, reducing workforce by half, deploying IT and non performing verticals to be hived off by end of 2016. Alternatives: According to Hofer Schendel (1980) the main emphasis for turnaround strategy happens through the cost reduction, asset reduction, revenue increasing, combination in the operations while the predominant method is to foray into the new business jump. Analysing Tata, it seems that the conglomerate has quickly done acquisitions at home and abroad by each Tata company, and the challenge is to consolidate. The learnings from the sheer aggressiveness of Chinese firms inspired the Tata management to shun any central strategy but more of opportunist strategies (Economist, 2012). Short Term To set the business level goals to drive the Tata Nano car sales in 1 years time, expand Tata Fiat JV, to launch diesel cars, trucks in variants with 5% marketshare and exports options. This is a turnaround strategy for the Tata Nano segment. Adopt lean tools to align production KPIs to meet the quality, demand centric pull to reduce steel production cost (10%) by mid 2017, capacity to improve (10%) at global level by 2017-18. This is a market concentration and asset reduction strategies that will help Tata to focus. Employees encouraged to be empowered for idea generation to start now, real time IT based collaborative integration by end of December 2016, to redesign of existing processes Tata enabling sustainability of business goals by mid of 2017. This is a profit strategy for all Tata verticals that will save expenditures from being wasted. Long Term Development of new prototypes through incremental (product, service) innovation, in each Tata vertical by 2016 -17. This is forward looking, long term marketshare increasing strategy, that combines with the liquidation strategies to discard productline, SBUs if it is not making profit. Adopt DMADV, Lean- sixsigma framework at enterprise level in Tata, that allows the conceptual design translated into reality to be optimized through statistical techniques starting from 2016. Recommended Strategies Focus on the loss making Tata businesses by 2016 Dec, that has declining PLC slow moving goods by applying Hofer Schendel (1980) turnaround model. Training and up skilling the employees, implement idea generation, adoption of IT to collaborate, integrate and achieve sustainability by 2016-17. All of the above points to Tatas harnessing of capabilities, lowering cost in operations, calculate ROI of investments made, focussing on revenue generation as per Hofer Schendel (1980) model therefore seeks a combination of operations centric approach to respond to the global business environment. Long Term Aligning the operations to meet the market based demand, and forecast for each line of business vertical in Tata should be mapped to final decision of sustainability, CSR issue and future existence. Predominantly a top level decision, it will allow to analyse and evaluate as is and to be feasibility and viability for each Tata venture. Strong Average Weak Embryonic (development) Coming to market (growth) Market shocks (competitive pressure) Maturity market saturation Decline exit from market Figure 1: Hofer Matrix Tata Nano of Tata Motors which did not climb growth phase, loser needs strategy to take on competition (Tripathy et al. 2012). Tata BP Solar is poised towards robust growth in alternate energy solution (B2B, B2C). TCS strong growth, seek new verticals to enter product to services, maintenance sector. Tata Steel at domestic and Corus UK have challenges, (capacity expansion) by 2016-17. Tata Ginger hotels, with website and mobile boom need to capture Indian market by 2016. Tata Daewoo Trucks for electric bus, Tata Fiat car and trucks JV to challenge Indian and global market by 2016 Dec. Justification of Recommendations The global meltdown and the US, Greece crisis in last decade is a weak indicator that prompts the conservative Tata to utilize the time and align its internal issues in each country and verticals. To allow a strategy of quality and lean sigma approach will help Tata to change the reengineer, redesign the existing process, lower the cost minimisation agenda, increase capability. In order to comply the emission norms, reduce GHG, shifting to green technology requires Tatas value driven action oriented framework offshoot of CSR to innovate, at rapid pace in order sustain the future growth and the create new markets globally (Sivakumar, 2008). Distributed leadership in Tata to drive this lean philosophy amidst the global falling markets, and the emergent strategy is countering the diversification and internalization strategies that were predominantly followed.. However, the application of the lean methods will lead to innovation, waste minimization and consolidation strategy to gain effi ciencies of volume, production and output. However, it needs leadership vision and strategy to adapt the KPIs in existing production practices to enable and strategise to meet the new business goals. This is an apt period, as lean and innovation will shift the product PLC curves and incremental progress can make the Tata to be ready in 3-7 years timeline. Implementation, Control and Follow-up The success of the above recommendations needs a strong training support, in order to drive continuous innovation across Tata. The low cost technological skill in product development in Tata with its Nano under $2500, showed that it has been able to overcome obstacles in the innovation (Gaur Sahdev, 2015). Going forward, the Tata management needs aligning OD(organisational development), seeking opportunities converting weakness into strengths in operations for creating a market responsive organization. This control and a radical shift towards lean and green technology, needs the management to track and measure the KPIs which is the key to achieving the NPD (new product development) for Tatas sustainability. The above approach will lead to consolidation of Tata businesses where the wastes (time, cost) and product obsolescence failing to generate profit is an indicator for Tata management to think from scratch. The sustainability issues of each vertical therefore are managed by the head of the businesses, though lean and DMADV will drive the reengineering methodology. This action oriented plan for next three to five years will streamline, optimize and allow Tata to adopt green technology and gain efficiencies in the production. It will consolidate loss making verticals and promote the profitable ones to new heights strengthening the shift towards green technology. References Bhattacharya, K. Datta, B. (2010). TATA Steelium -- A Success Story in B2B Branding. Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers, 35(2), pp.101126. Economist, 2012. The Tata Group - Out of India. The Economist, pp.17. Kamath, C.D. (2006). A Case Study in Intrapreneurship: The Turnaround at Tata Refractories. Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers;, 31(1), pp.117121. Kang, L.S. Sidhu, H. (2011). Talent Management at Tata Consultancy Services. Global Business Review, 12(3), pp.459471. Retrieved 22nd September 2016 from: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-80052373713partnerID=tZOtx3y1. Maroor, J. (2015). Customer Satisfaction towards Services offered on Passenger Cars: A Case Study of Tata Motors, Mangalore.MANTHAN,2(2). https://dx.doi.org/10.17492/manthan.v2i2.8611 Nadkarni, A.G. Branzei, O. (2008). The Tata Way: Evolving and Executing Sustainable Business Strategies. Ivey Business Journal, 72(March), pp.18. Sarkar, P. Hazarika, D. (2010). Development of engine management system - Tata Nano - The value car. SAE Technical Papers, (Figure 2). Retrieved 23rd September 2016 from: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84877239433partnerID=40md5=e7435e8714e41768ce08868752993135. Seshadri, D.V.R., Tripathy, A. Ramesh, G. (2006). Reinventing a Giant Corporation: The Case of Tata Steel. Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers, 31(3), pp.133146. Seshadri, D.V.R., Tripathy, A. Ramesh, G., 2006. Reinventing a Giant Corporation: The Case of Tata Steel. Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers, 31(3), pp.133146. Shao, H., 2013. Tata Consultancy Services. Forbes Asia, 9(10), p.105. Retrieved 22nd September 2016 from: https://ejwl.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=bthAN=99941989site=ehost-live. Singh, J., 2008. Tight Rope Walk at Tata Steelà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¯: Balancing Profits and CSR [ Psi ]. South Asian Journal of Management, 15(1), pp.118136. Sivakumar, N., 2008. The business ethics of Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata - A forerunner in promoting stakeholder welfare. Journal of Business Ethics, 83(2), pp.353361. Srivastava, A., Negi, G., Mishra, V., Pandey, S. (2012). Corporate Social Responsibility: A Case Study Of TATA Group.IOSR Journal Of Business And Management,3(5), 17-27. https://dx.doi.org/10.9790/487x-0351727 Hofer, C. W., Schendel, D. (1980). Strategy formulation: Analytical concepts. West Publishing. Tripathy, M. R., Pandey, S. K., Srivastava, A., Vyas, R., Agrawal, M. (2012). The Turnaround of Tata Nano: Reinventing the Wheel. Vision: The Journal of Business Perspective, 16(1), 5359. https://doi.org/10.1177/097226291201600106 The Economist. (2009). Inside the Tata Nano: No small achievement. The Economist. Gaur, L., Sahdev, S. L. (2015). Frugal innovation in India: The case of Tata Nano. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 10(7), 1741117420. Economist. (2012). The Tata Group - Out of India. The Economist, pp. 17. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.caredit.a1200079

Friday, November 29, 2019

how will I pay for college Essays - Student Financial Aid

How will I pay for College? Benjamin Franklin once said, ?By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail.? In my preparations for transferring to San Diego State University I need to develop an organized plan on how to pay for college. In Fall 2012 when I transfer to San Diego State University I calculated my tuition for two and a half years as an Undergraduate to be approximately $24,710. After graduation, Graduate school for one and a half years will be $36,850. Overall, the total amount that I will need for my education and living expenses over the next four years will be $61,560. The problem that plagues me is how will I pay for college? By using a variety of financial aid programs I will be able to invest in my college education. First I looked at Scholarships, then Pell grants and how I can better qualify for them, also how I can obtain more money by incorporating work-study programs and paid internships, and finally I looked at using Private loans as a last alternative. Though detail oriented and time consuming, scholarships provide the most benefit and ?bang for my buck.? Stated by Fastweb.com scholarships like Xerox offer $1,000-$10,000 and require U.S. citizenship, a minimum 3.0 GPA, and enrollment in a technical science or engineering discipline at the bachelor level or higher. The benefits to me are that this scholarship is only available to minorities of Asian, Hispanic, Native American, Alaskan, Pacific Islander or Black/African American descent. Also the Xerox application process is quite simple and requires the submission of a resume rather than an essay. Although the Xerox scholarship is purely competitive and my extensive research does not show any underlying negatives, the fact that the scholarship resume has a section for work experience relating to your major can be a negative if you have none. Maximizing this scholar has the potential to provide me with $10,000 towards funding my education. That would make a huge dent in $24,710 requi red for my bachelor?s degree, leaving me with a remaining $14,710 to find in funding. Even if I am awarded the minimal amount of $1,000, that will sustain my cost of living for months. The abundance of scholarships and ?free money? awarded are some of the benefits to using scholarships to fund my college education. By using a variety of scholarships and exploring each one that I am qualified for, I can obtain more money for school. Many schools and websites recommend using a ?scholarship search engine,? which is a fast and convenient way of narrowing my search for scholarships that fit my criteria. Not limiting myself to scholarships and exploring other options like Pell grants I can increase my success in paying for college. Through understanding Pell Grants and how to qualify and apply for them I can prevent myself from wasting valuable time. Filling out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) is the first step in finding out what type of Pell grant I can qualify for. In this meticulous part of the process the government ?weeds out? the undeserving, and determines the recipients. Author Michael Bennet states on the website pellgranteligibility.net, ?Once you have satisfied the list of Pell Grant requirements in accordance with demonstrating the appropriate level of financial need, the final Pell Grant amount you may be able to receive, will then be calculated with regard to your EFC, cost of attendance, and enrollment status.? So your financial need is ultimately the product of the following equation: Financial Need = Cost of Attendance (CoA) ? Expected Family Contribution (EFC). Some of the pros and cons when applying for the Pell Grant are the $5,000 maximum amount offered is substantial, but there are many variables that can disqualify me from obtaining the full amount or any amount for that matter. According to the website Singlemomhelp.com, ?Although the Pell Grant has been around for a long time, there is still a lot of misinformation about it.? The FAFSA is continually changing, and each year has known to be vague and in some ways misleading. ?Becoming eligible for the Pell Grant relies primarily on your ability to demonstrate an exceptional financial need for aid, although you must still be

Monday, November 25, 2019

Emotional Memory Essay Example

Emotional Memory Essay Example Emotional Memory Essay Emotional Memory Essay Emotional memory pertains to an individual’s remembrance of incidents that have occurred in the yesteryear. The mechanism behind such strong keeping is chiefly based on the emotions that are associated with that peculiar event. ensuing in a increased degree of attending that facilitates encoding of the event in the memory of an single. Emotional memory is besides involved in contemplations of the happening. regardless of the length of clip that has already passed off since the existent event. This sort of memory can be distinguished from other neurobiological constructs of memory because its keeping is really strong due to the influence of emotions. which technically magnifies inside informations of the incident. Research has shown that emotional memory is imprinted in the cortical part of the encephalon. This description is supported by observations that several nervous activities occur in the cerebral mantle. therefore easing memory keeping. Several surveies have indicated that emotional memory involves two major procedures. viz. encoding and post-encoding. The first procedure of encoding involves the heightened degree of attending of an person during the existent event. while post-encoding pertains to the consolidation of the inside informations of the event after the existent incident. coupled with sweetening that is triggered by the emotions that were set off at that clip. One premier illustration of an emotional memory is the graphic callback of an accident that is associated with physical hurt and blood. Regardless of the length of clip that the incident has occurred. the person who was involved in the accident is still capable of retrieving the accident even after several old ages. One complication of emotional memory is that an single finds it hard to disassociate his emotions with respects to a peculiar incident. It is therefore highly difficult for an person to travel back to the site of an accident if this individual about died at that clip. It has been suggested that development besides plays a function in emotional memory. wherein the encephalon of human existences has acquired the capacity to retain inside informations of an event in order to last that peculiar incident. It may therefore be possible that through fright. early Primatess and other higher mammals may hold learned to remain off from marauders and other harmful environmental constituents in order to last in the natural state. These species may hold adapted such manners of memory by being subjected to extreme uncomfortableness or hurting that is related to incidents such as toxin exposure or predation and therefore their perceptual experience for harmful conditions may hold been imprinted in their encephalons and perchance passed on to their progeny. The exact mechanism behind the retrieval of memories associated with a peculiar incident based on emotional scenes still remains elusive up to this day of the month. The alone characteristic of storage for a drawn-out period of clip farther complicates the tract and several analysts have attempted to turn to this inquiry. Neurobiologists have suggested that emotional memory may be act as a complete procedure unless an person is able to recover the information associated with a specific incident in the yesteryear. Storage of information. or encoding. is merely one constituent of the full emotional memory tract yet the retrieval of specific information is indispensable in finding that the full procedure has been completed. It has besides been suggested that emotional memory is easier to entree over the impersonal events. and this is besides partially due to the function of amygdaloid nucleus. which influences how the hippocampus maps at such events. In add-on to the emotional influence. slumber besides sways the encephalon to retrieve specific incidents. wherein the sum of slumber can ensue in a positive or negative status for memory. Harmonizing to Sterpenic et Al. ( 2007 ) . memory is influenced by slumber through the infliction of nervous correlatives. Through the application of functional magnetic resonance imagination ( functional magnetic resonance imaging ) . a comparing of nervous connexions was examined among topics who were able to kip for a sufficient sum of clip and those who were deprived of slumber. The probe was designed towards a phase wherein the topics were allowed to undergo post-encoding. which is one of the two phases of emotional memory. The probe showed that topics who received adequate hours of slumber had the ability to retrieve the positive events that occurred. On the other manus. an interesting observation came from those topics who were subjected to a peculiar negative event. They observed that regardless of sufficiency or deficiency of slumber. the topic participant was able to retain the inside informations of the negative event. most likely through the characteristic emotion that was generated from the negative stimulation. Another observation gathered by neurobiologists sing emotional memory was that several parts of the encephalon were responsible in retaining such inside informations and emotions. The two major encephalons countries involved in emotional memory were the hippocampus and the cerebral mantle. Specific parts of the cerebral mantle that were responsible for emotional memory included the prefrontal cerebral mantle. which is besides involved in criminalism. It seems that negative emotions. such as that involved in emotional memory. are mostly stored in this part of the encephalon. Furthermore. functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning showed a functional connexion between these two parts of the encephalon and the combinative consequence of these parts was magnified when the incident is featured with negative stimulations or emotions. It is interesting to cognize that slumber may besides hold a selective consequence on the memory of an person. The amygdaloid nucleus was observed to merely excite the hippocampus for encoding when a negative event has occurred and this happens with or without sleep. On the other manus. a happy incident will merely be stored in the hippocampus if an single receives plenty sleep. Such selective storage of inside informations may be mostly influenced by emotions during that peculiar event. and non merely by the sum of clip that an person was able to kip. Such sorts of research probes are therefore of import in the supplying a better apprehension of how emotions influence an individual’s memory and finally. one’s mental status. It has besides been shown that emotions play a major function in the storage of inside informations in the encephalon. In an probe that involved use of the context of emotion of capable participants. the activity of the nervous webs in the encephalon was examined. A specific memory tested besides allowed the comparing of retrieval capacities of the encephalon and the research conducted by Smith et Al. ( 2005 ) showed that the presence of emotions increased the likeliness that an person will retain the inside informations of the incident. The emotional memory tested in this survey showed that the existent country of encephalon involved in this mechanism is the left side of the amygdaloid nucleus. every bit good as the left side of the frontotemporal part of the cerebral mantle. The survey besides showed that the right side of the amydala and the frontotemporal cerebral mantle was non capable plenty of hive awaying inside informations of a specific incident. regardless of its yoke to emotions. It is therefore possible that when an person has damaged the left side of his encephalon. so it is impossible for him to remember any other inside informations of his yesteryear. It should besides be understood that knowledge is chiefly based on memory every bit good as emotion. yet for several yesterday there were non attempts performed into looking into the finer inside informations of the tract. In add-on. there were besides merely a few reported sing the interaction of the amygdaloid nucleus and the cerebral mantle and on how these two parts responded to each other’s messages. The coming of high definition imaging engineerings such as the magnetic resonance imagination allowed the visual image of internal parts of the encephalon that were perceived to be unapproachable by an other analytical agencies. Mentions Smith. A. P. . Henson. R. N. . Rugg. M. D. and Dolan. R. J. ( 2005 ) . Transition of retrieval processing reflects truth of emotional beginning memory. Learning and Memory. 12. 472–479. Sterpenich. V. . Albouy. G. . Boly. M. . Vandewalle. G. . Darsaud. A. . Balteau. E. . Dang-Vu. T. T. . Desseilles. M. . D’Argembeau. A. . Gais. S. . Rauchs. G. . Schabus. M. . Degueldre. C. . Luxen. A. . Collette. F. . Maquet. P. ( 2007 ) . Sleep-related hippocampo-cortical interplay during emotional memory remembrance. PloS Bi

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Sex, Gender and Society Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Sex, Gender and Society - Essay Example The fact of gender stereotyping therefore has put the spotlight back on the Caribbean male. (Lewis, 1994, p 76). In other words, it has become one of the most perceptible gendered realities that the men in the Caribbean territory are in crisis in the modern world and the Jamaican realities of gender regarding the marginalisation of black male substantiate the argument. In fact, the marginalisation of black male in the Caribbean territory, especially in Jamaica, has emerged one of the pertinent discourses in the contemporary discourses of Sex, Gender and Society. "Central to this discourse is the notion that men are increasingly missing from the higher echelons of the family, the classroom and the labour force. The marginalization thesis prompts a variety of understandings. On the one hand, the increased presence of Jamaican women in education, the labour force and as household heads suggests that the nation's traditional patriarchy is being reordered to produce a new female-dominated gender hierarchy." (Lindsay, 2002, p 56). This paper undertakes a reflective analysis of the thesis, with reference to the territory of Jamaica, that Caribbean men are in crisis examining the relevance and accuracy of this argument and finding the most illumining recommendations as resolution. One of the salient recent developments in feminist and gender studies in the Caribbean region is the emergence of studies of masculinities and the most appealing argument, based on the marginalisation thesis, is that the Caribbean male is an endangered species. There have been convincing data evidences and empirical supports to this significant argument by Lindsay, and the evidences from the education sector best substantiate the point. Thus, "the Anglophone Caribbean is one of the few regions where secondary school enrolment of girls exceeds that of boys. Additionally, by the 1986-87 academic year, total female enrolment at the University of the West Indies slightly exceeded that of males. By the end of 1992, 70 per cent of all graduates from the University of the West Indies Mona campus were female." (Reddock, 2004, p ix-x). Therefore, it is obvious that there are stunning empirical evidences to prove the accuracy of the argument which states that Caribbean men are in crisis. Accor ding to Lindsay, a clear understanding of the data regarding Caribbean women's participation in different areas of the family, workplace and classroom rarely suggests the increasing female dominance and converse male marginality. To her, the marginality of males in the land results not from any concrete material reality, but from a gender based methodological frame which identifies some data source and ignores others. That is to say, there are arguments in favour as well as against the data evidences of male marginalisation. "While a number of scholars have been able to challenge the marginalization thesis successfully, it continues to have great impact, causing expressions of concern from the highest levels of government and from quasi-governmental institutions at national and regional levels." (Reddock, 2004, p ix-x). Therefore, it is all but easy to conclude that there is great accuracy of the marginalizati

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Research paper for culture Geography---Female role in work place Essay

Research paper for culture Geography---Female role in work place - Essay Example For example, in the 19th-century in the northeastern part of England women were excluded from employment in coal mining. They were bestowed with heavy burdens of unpaid domestic labor in their capacity of being wives and often daughters. It is very evident that wages were paid differently to men and women from the statistical example of 19th century. Women were seriously disempowered in all walks of lives. McDowell and Massey argued, â€Å"male supremacy...became an established, and almost unchallenged, fact† (1984, p. 132). Women were faced with unequal pay and other forms of gender equality. Women â€Å"do not often gesture and stride, stretch and push to the limits of our physical capabilities† (Rose, 1993, p. 144). This notion said by Rose should be interpreted as; women are much more capable of what they believe to be. Should they push themselves a little bit forward, they can make the best leaders. The geography has ever since supported the notion of separate public and domestic spheres; based on this ideological divide, women has had limited access to the public sphere. There exist certain structures and practices that work towards men’s advantage and women’s disadvantage. Bartram & Showbrook aptly says, â€Å"The debate has emphasized the importance of patriarchal relations in defining social and cultural roles for women in the workplace† (1998). It is widely proven that women have been highly underrepresented at work places. This particular fact needs immediate attention and redressed. According to the Royal commission report (1984) on Equality in Employment, there are four groups of people in Canada who are historically considered disadvantaged in employment policies and practices--Native people, visible minorities, persons with disabilities, and women. This is so because many discriminatory and unfair employment practices. Compared to ancient times, the workplace began to open up for increased number of women. Women had to

Monday, November 18, 2019

Fact pattern Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Fact pattern - Essay Example Although these legal principles are national; the scope of others depends on state law development. Currently; art trade activities involving production, sale, display and collection of art get professional legal considerations through regulation, statute, treaty, case law, ordinance and regulation. Art traditionally concerns fine art and visual arts. Also, it’s noted that art law is very similar to the cultural property law. Entertainment law generally entails industries or sectors engaged in the production of theatre, music, television, publishing and motion pictures. These entertainment sectors deal with economic or business aspects that are applicable to almost all areas of law; for example copyright, trade secret, publicity, securities, trademark, rights of privacy and publicity, corporate law, international law, constitutional law and labor law. All of these stated laws work towards protecting the creative rights of the individual or the enterprises. Other laws related to the entertainment law include; intellectual property law, sports law, telecommunications law and First Amendment law. The most basic legal tool in the entertainment sector is the personal service agreement (Wasko 178). The personal service agreement is quite often governed through statutes, and they are at times the subject of court processes due to restrictions on rights of the artists to create or perform for other enterprises o r individuals. Another additional issues discussed in this paper is the fact pattern which involves presentation of evidences. Law practitioners are required to study the proofs in order to disregard or ignore those which are not applicable to the subject matter at hand. Copyright law protects artistic works. The artistic works should be presented in tangible mediums like paintings. Copyright is given through the federal statutes and it enables the artist to have exclusive rights on his works; like reproduction

Saturday, November 16, 2019

English As An International Language English Language Essay

English As An International Language English Language Essay Introduction: Teacher of English as a second language is ultimately faced with a dichotomy between knowledge and performance, especially if they teach courses with a major component of written expression. A class of English language learners can perform sufficiently in routine grammatical exercises, but then fail signally to translate this demonstrated knowledge into reality when faced with the task of writing original prose. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical analysis of grammatical errors in students writing as a means of identifying those aspects of English grammar that do not translate well from routine testing of grammatical knowledge to original work. The results provide some insight into shortfall in the capabilities of students and, more importantly, identify ways to redress them. Interest in the teaching of English as an international language has been growing throughout the Arab countries, and most Arab governments began to launch the teaching of English as compulsory subject in schools. At present, in most Arab countries, all students who finish the public secondary school education must have had at least eight years of teaching in English as a school subject. So, because of the widespread use of English as a second language, the subject of language teaching in general and teaching English as a foreign or second language in particular, has become the focus of attention of most Arab researchers (Al-Khatib, 2000). As far as English at tertiary level in the Arab world is concerned, (Zughoul, 2003; Sultana, (2001) point out that teaching through the medium of English is obvious in the field of higher education with the exception of Syria which maintained a strong teaching tradition through the medium of Arabic. Zughoul, in confirming this issue has said, no law s have been enacted or language plans drawn to be implemented regarding the use of Arabic in Arab universities in any Arab country (ibid, (2003). As far as Arab students are concerned, recently, Rababah has rightly stated that attitudinal studies conducted on Arab students, consistently showed that Arab students are instrumentally motivated to learn English and that they are well aware of the utility of knowing English. The main stimulus for learning English is instrumental, i.e. to achieve a goal, e.g. a career (ibid, 2003).To shed more about the present status of English in the Arab world, Zughoul rightly states: despite the hegemonic and imperialistic nature of English, it is still badly needed in the Arab world for the purposes of communicating with the world, education, acquisition of technology and development at large. Teaching still needs more efforts to be exerted to raise the quality and standard of English of the Arab learners at all levels, (ibid 2003). General Background Language is a means of communication with individuals. It is a system of sound which is structured and used to communicate peoples feeling, intentions, purpose, etc to the others. It is a special characteristic of human or it can also be regarded as one of human criteria because only human beings speak a language. However, the ability to speak a language should be developed in a social group. Sapir (1921:p 8) says language is purely human and non instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotional, and desires by means of system of voluntarily produced symbols. One of the Languages is English. It is one of the languages used in communication almost all over the world. It used mainly in Britain and its commonwealth all over the world and it has become one of the main languages of international communication. It has a very important role in technological and scientific advances. 2.1 Grammar The word grammar has several meanings and there is no universally accepted definition. Different experts define the term grammar differently. There is no fixed definition of grammar. Leech (1982: 3) defined grammar as something in reference to the mechanism according to which language works when it is used to communicate with other people. Harmer (2001: 12) defines grammar as the description of the ways in which words can change their forms and can be combined into sentences in that language. Gerot Wignell (1994: 2) state that grammar is a theory of a language, of how language is put together and how it works. Having known the definition of grammar, it is not hard for us to understand why grammar is useful and important. Without knowing the grammar of a language, one can not be said to have learned the language. Besides, it seems impossible to learn a language without learning the grammar because it tells him how to use the language. People learn how to construct a good message base d on the rules they have known and try to convey the message to the others. These rules are termed as grammar. The mechanism of grammar cannot be seen concretely, because it is rather abstractly represented in the human mind, but we know it is there because it works. One way of describing this mechanism is by means of a set of rules which allow us to put words together in certain ways which do not allow others. The meaning of a message conveyed by language has to be converted into words put together according to grammatical rules and these words are then conveyed by sounds. Preposition and particles Sawn states that Arabic has a wealth of fixed prepositions and particles, used with both verbs and adjectives. Many of these do not coincide with their direct English translation. There are no phrasal verbs in arabic and this whole area is one of the great difficult for Arabic speakers. Defence mechanisms may involve selecting alternative but regular verbs to avoid using phrasal verbs altogether, or the misuse or omission of the preposition or particle. As prepositions in Arabic are always followed by or linked to a noun or pronoun, preposition- stranding patterns in English will usually be avoided in favour of the Arabic patterns, which are often similar to more formal English. Literature Review: A Review of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) Research Over the past years, studies of second languages learning have occupied a significant position in the field of linguistic. The term second language acquisition refer to the subconscious or conscious by which a language other than the other tongue is learnt in natural or a taught setting. It includes the development of phonology, lexis, grammar and pragmatic knowledge (Ellis, 2008). Ellis (2008) defined Second Language Acquisition (SLA) as the study which people have showed great interests although it does not have a long history. Interlanguage Theory (IL) The Definition of Interlanguage According to Selinker (1972), interlanguage refers to the separateness of a second language learners system, system that has a structurally intermediate status between the native and target languages. (p. 201). Nemser (1971:9) stresses the successive approximation to the target language in his term approximative system. Corder (1972:151) makes use of the term idiosyncratic dialect to denote the idea that learners language is unique to a particular individual. While each of these descriptions focuses on a particular idea, they share the idea that second language learners form their own language system. Richards (1974: 124) states that the sources of errors in studying a language might be derived from the interference of the learners mother tongue and the general characteristics of the rule learning. The general characteristics of the rule learning cause the errors which are called the intralanguage errors and the interference of the learners mother tongue causes the errors which are called the interlanguage errors. He (1974) makes a distinction between three sources of competence errors: (1) Interference errors happen as an effect of the use of element from one language whereas speaking another. (2) Intralingual errors reveal the general characteristics of rule learning such as faulty generalization, incomplete application of rules and failure to learn conditions under which rules apply. (3) Developmental errors occur when the learner try to build up hypothesis about the target language on the basis of limited experience. Richards (1971) also classifies intralingual errors into four types: Overgeneralization It occurs when the learner produces an unexpected structure on the basis of other structures in the target language. In other words, it involves the creation of one unusual structure in place of two target language structures. Ignorance of the rule restrictions It includes the application of rules to context where they do not apply. It is in general linked to analogy. It contains a failure to fully develop a structure. As a result, learners of L2 English have been observed to use word order of declaration in questions. This type of intralingual error keeps up a correspondence to what is often referred to as an error of transitional competence (Richards, 1971:174) False concepts hypothesized The final type of intralanguage error, that is sometimes named semantic error, may be derived from faulty comprehension in the target language. The Stages of IL Development It can be said that there are many way to describe the progression of linguistic development and learners are variable in their acquisition. According to Brown (2000/1994:p211), IL development can be classified into four stages. The first stage is random errors, in which the learner cannot recognize that there are some systematic orders to a particular class of items. The second stage is emergent, in which learner becomes consistent in linguistic production. The third stage is a systematic stage in which the learner has a capacity to prove more consistency. When their errors are pointed out, they will correct their errors right away. Certainly, they are more close to the target language. The last stage is stabilization stage which is characterised by the learners ability to self-correct. Approaches to IL Study Contrastive Analysis (CA) According to Johnson Johnson (1998:110), Contrastive analysis is a comparing two linguistic systems, the learner L1 and the target L2 with a view to determining structural similarities and differences. Because of it, making errors in learning language is regularly happen. As said by Brown (1994:193), second language learning basically involved the overcoming of the differences between the two linguistic systems- the native and the target languages. Lado (1957:2) pointed out that the forms meanings and distribution of native language and culture can be transferred to the target language. He also states that those elements that are similar to this native language will be simple for him and those elements that are different will be difficult.(p:2) Error Analysis (EA) Significance of Error Analysis Error analysis in SLA was established in 1960s by Stephen Pit Corder and colleagues. Error analysis was an alternative to contrastive analysis, an approach influenced by behaviourism through which applied linguistic sough to use the formal distinctions between the learners L1 and L2 to predicted errors. According to James (1998:1), error analysis is the process of determining the incidences, nature, causes and consequences of unsuccessful language. It can be said that making errors in language process can be extremely common. As Ubol (1988: 8) said, Errors analysis is a systematic description and explanation of errors made by learners or user in their oral or written production on the TL. That is mean that error analysis is concerned with the explanation of occurrence error and production error of their oral or written expression differs from that of native speaker or Target Language (TL) Corder (1981) noted that Errors can be significant in three different ways. Firstly, teacher can have information about how much the learner had learnt. Secondly, the research can have evidence of how language was learnt. Thirdly, errors served as devices by which the learner discovered the rules of the Target Language (TL) Procedures of Error To analysis the data, I use error analysis method. Corder was quoted by Ellis(2008:46) recommends the following steps to conduct an error analysis investigate: Collection of a sample of learner language by which deciding what patterns of learner language to use for analysis and how to collect thesis patterns. Identification of errors by which underlying the errors the learner made. Description of errors in which errors can be classified as group that found and declaring the classes of the errors. Explanation of errors by which the errors can be established the source of the errors and calculating how often errors appear. Evaluation of errors in which tabelizing errors and drawing conclusion can be involved. Referring to the steps of error analysis method above, the date will be analysis as following: Identification of errors: In this step, I studied the acquired data and tried to find out grammatical errors in particular errors in use of preposition. I tried to analysis the data as objective as possible. Description of errors: Once the errors have been identified. I classified the errors into the category of errors in use of preposition. Evaluation of errors: In this step would be drawing a conclusion based on the analysis. I have to make a valid conclusion in the form of a brief description of the errors. Error Types Brown(1994) pointed out that there are two type (Another division that is widely agreed on is that interlingual errors and intralingual errors believed by linguists. An error that results from language transfer, which is caused by the learners native language, is called interlingual errors. Intralingual errors refer to those produced in using the target language in own terms. They result from faulty or partial of the target language, rather than from language transfer. Errors in the use of prepositions Prepositions are always followed by nouns (or pronouns). They are connective words that show the relationship between the nouns following them and one of the basic sentence elements: subject, verb, object, or complement. They usually indicate relationships, such as position, place, direction, time, manner, agent, possession, and condition, between their objects and other parts of the sentence (Wishon and Burks, 1980: 288). A preposition may be composed of one, two, or three parts. For instance: a. one part: of, on, in, at, for, from b. two parts: because of, according to, etc c. three parts: in front of, on top of, as far as, etc In using a preposition, one should be aware because there is no certain rule for this. One has to determine which preposition should be used based on its context. Previous studies Students on EFL Arab Learners writing Errors Bacha (2002:161) states that L2 writers are known to face problems in developing their writing skills at the university level. These problems are even more accentuated with L1 Arabic non-native speakers of English in required English composition. She has added that Arab learners or a foreign language or second language do have serious problems in writing and may not be motivated to develop their writing skills. Kharma and Hajjaj (1997) described preposition as an everlasting problem for EFL Arab learner. Kharmas statement based on his own empirical and theoretical studies conducted in several Arab countries (e.g. Arab Gulf and Jordan) and because he observed that almost all research on syntactic errors in the Arab world, preposition were found to be the most troublesome grammatical words and constantly continue a significant preposition of error occupied the first of second position among other syntactic and semantic errors. Methodology Participants The participants of this study are the IELTS class of Arab students in English language centre at Manchester Metropolitan University in the academic year of 2010. The class consists of 19 students. I choose nine of their written work randomly. I selected them to be subject of this study because they have already learnt the English grammar and they use English in the classroom teaching learning process as well. Data collection In collection the data, the materials used for analysis were 9 written works on one topic from IELTS course students at Manchester Metropolitan University. The students were asked to write topic about; in my dairy, I will: The topic was chosen for students to practise the simple past tense. The work was done as activity in class, but the students were allowed to use dictionaries. The work created by the students was thoughtful, creative and well structured. I tried to analysis the students errors and to find out the grammatical errors done by students in particular preposition errors. Discussion of errors The subjects of this study made 28 errors ( see appendix 2). There are three subcategories of errors (substitution, addition and omission) will be presented by the side of their source whether it is intralingual or interlingual. The number of errors is small as mentioned above. In the discussion of errors in this study, only few examples for sake of illustration to the three categories will be given and discussed. Errors of substitution Analysis of the data disclosee examples of the substitution of prepositions which seemed to be caused by both, the students mother tongue interference and influence of the target language itself. The majority of the errors were of substitutes, made in the use of prepositions in the composition whether the source was interlingual or intralingual. Interlingual Errors Intralingual Errors Total In instead at: The following are illustrative examples: I felt comfortable to learn English in MMU. I did registration in police. At instead in: Finally, at the first week, I felt homesick. This error are attributed to overgeneralization that arises from the ambiguity in the learners mind, particularly when they face the task of using one preposition to express different connections and meanings. In this case, the learners will overgenerlise one item over the other as in (1) they overgenerlised the preposition at instead of in. To instead for: The following is illustrative example: I took photos to him. To instead in: The following are illustrative examples: I arrived to Manchester. It was my first time to the UK. To instead on: The following are illustrative examples: My teachers asked us to go with group to campus. We took our student cards and to enrolled to our course. For instead to: The following are illustrative examples: I started for study hard. I came here for learn English. About instead for: The following are illustrative examples: My first impression about the university was good. I search about a flat or home. During instead over: The following is illustrative example: During the three weeks. Errors of addition The addition of preposition indicated those redundant propositions are used where they are not needed. The analysis of the date showed that (5) prepositions were added they were not necessary. Analysis of data showed examples of the addition of prepositions which seemed to be caused by both, students s mother tongue interference and the influence of the target language itself. Here some illustrative examples: Addition of of I started stady of Eingliesh. The error in the above example attributed to the TL interference. in the same way, Modern Sanders Arabic does not need a preposition in such context. Therefore, the learner of this sentence overgeneralised the use of the preposition of in position where it is not nedded. Addition of for I spent about three hour for studying. Addition of to I pray everyday to arrive my passport. I met to Staphany at that time. We went to shopping. Errors of omission Analysis of the data revealed that there are prepositions were omitted from places where they were needed. Also, analysis of data revealed examples of omission of preposition which seemed to be caused by both, the student mother tongue and the influence of the target language itself. Here are some examples: Omission of (of) The following are illustrative examples: It was my first time to ride^ a train. I went to Manchester Metropolitan University, because^ registration. Omission of (for) When I came back to my flat with my family^ about one hour. ^the first three weeks, I visited my friend in Manchester. I visited hotel in London ^3 days. Omission of (on) The following are illustrative examples: I got her my passport^ Wednesday. ^the first day in the school language. Omission of (in) The following are illustrative examples: ^ the second week, When I arrived ^Manchester,.. (1) Based on the finding of the analysis, it shows that the students made a total of 235 errors which consists of 153 or 65 % errors in using verb forms, 3 or 1.3 % errors in agreement between subject and verb, 10 or 4.3 % errors in the use of article, 30 or 12.8 % errors in the use of preposition, 12 or 5.1 % errors in pluralization, 23 or 9.8 % errors in the use of pronoun, and 4 or 1.7 % errors in the use of conjunction. (2) According to the findings, it can be concluded that the students have not mastered the use of verb groups. We can see it from the number of the errors made. Although they had been taught about it before, they were still confused which one to use when making a grammatical sentence. It could be because in bahasa Indonesia we do not have the verb conjugations. We do not have time signaling in expressing ideas. They are unfamiliar to this form and because English is still foreign for them. And those are the possible causes of their errors. The students were still confused in making the agreement between subject and verb. It could be because in bahasa Indonesia there is no agreement between subject and verb. The students were still confused in differentiating whether to use the definite or indefinite articles. It could be because in Indonesian language grammar there is no definite article used. The students still confused in deciding preposition which preposition should be used, whether to use in, on, or at. The students overgeneralized the pluralizing of nouns. They just added the -s/ -es without considering that there are some irregular forms of nouns pluralization. The students still confused in deciding which pronoun should be used to substitute nouns, whether it is personal, relative, possessive, or demonstrative pronouns. The students applied rules in forming past time verb to conjunctions. From the explanations above, I can conclude that the students still confused in dealing with English grammar systems. Pedagogical implication: